Ruby Raguindin
Flashcards by Ruby Raguindin, updated more than 1 year ago
Ruby Raguindin
Created by Ruby Raguindin almost 5 years ago



Resource summary

Question Answer
Which public relations models did Edward Bernays create and when? Two-Way Symmetric (Balanced) 1980's - present Two-Way Asymmetric (Imbalanced) 1920's - present
What is the 'public information' model of public relations? Who created it? IVY LEE!!!!!!! One-way/research Early 1900's - present
Which model uses communication, dialogue and research with an emphasis on managing conflict/resolving disputes? Two-way symmetrical
Which model is being adopted by organizations today? Or not quite yet? Two-way symmetrical
TRUE OF FALSE: The two-way symmetrical model works like a feedback loop. Bonus: WHY?! TRUTH: This is because the objective of this model is to strengthen relationships/reputation. This is done through mutual understanding and accommodation.
______ are defined as: "A person's driving force which determines how people WILL behave in a given situation." Values
What are two public relations practitioner organizations? CPRS & IABC
What does CPRS stand for? Canadian public relations society
What does IABC stand for? International Association of Business Communicators
Making decisions in PR require satisfying which four aspects? 1. Public interest 2. Employers 3. Professional societies codes of ethics 4. Personal Values
Compare libel, slander and defamation. Libel = Printed Slander = Oral Defamation = either/or (presently used)
When would an individual encounter Invasion of Privacy laws? When dealing with employees, newsletter, photo releases, product publicity, advertising, media inquiries about employees, etc.
What is a trademark? A word, symbol or slogan that identifies a product's origin. Customers associate trademarks with seller's goods or services.
What acronym represents a public relations plan? SOASTCBE
What does each letter in SOASTCBE stand for? Situation Objectives Audience Strategy Tactics Calendar/Timetable Budget Evaluation
What is research? Research is the controlled, objective and systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding. -Broom and Dozier
What must you understand before launching an effective PR program? Organizations environment **Attitudes/issues of employees, shareholders and residents of audience.**
Identify some of the reasons why research is important? There's a lot. Communication planning, issues management, cost savings, audience segmentation, organizational issues, identify issues, target audience, formulate strategy, test messages, inform management, prevent crises, influence opinions, measure success, provide credibility, generate publicity
What are the four types of research? QQVR 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative 3. Valid 4. Reliable
Why is reliability a research standard? Consistency! Similar results are achieved when research is repeated.
What is valid research? Measuring what something claims to measure. Checking how valid and accurate actual research is. What is being tested? How is it being tested? Is it testing what was intended?
What is analysis? Making sense of data collected and include developing accurate conclusions.
What is action based on analysis? Looking at all the information and using it to make a decision.
How does analysis help determine which actions should be made? Analysis helps develop accurate conclusions and communication objectives (to improve in specific areas, manage an issue/crisis, move in new directions.)
What are the three A's in action? (One IS action just so you know.) Awareness, acceptance, action.
What are tactics? Step-by-step activities that put strategies into operation.
What is the difference between tactics and objectives? Tactics are the actions to achieve your measurable objectives.
What are the two types of communication? How do they differ? One-way - Disseminates information Sender to receiver Two-way - Dialogue between sender and receiver (Symmetrical communication)
Define strategy. Broad statement. Outlines how to achieve objective. Answers WHY an objective is important. Campaigns may have one or many strategies, providing guidelines or key messages.
What are three important timeline aspects? 1. When should we do this? 2. What goes first? 3. How does it all work together?
What are important aspects when planning a budget? Staff vs. Consultant Estimated vs. Actual Specific & Accurate Get quotas Include GST Allocate 10% for contingencies.
What does an objective need to address? The situation.
What does an objective need to be in order for success to happen? Realistic and achievable.
What are the two types of objectives? What are examples of each? Information - Increase public awareness/ acceptance, deliver key messages, can be difficult to measure. Motivational (Action Oriented) - Change attitudes, influence behaviour, bottom-line oriented, measure results.
What does SMART represent? Objectives must be: Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely
What is the difference between objectives and communication? Communication are the means by which objectives are achieved.
What does successful communication achieve? Inform, persuade, motivate, and obtain mutual understanding.
What are the five objectives of communication? 1. Message exposure (Media, websites, etc.) 2. Accurate dissemination of the message 3. Acceptance of the message. 4. Attitude change 5. Change in behaviour (Actual change ex. purchase)
Outline passive audiences. Target of most PR campaigns. Pay attention to message only because it's entertaining. Messages need style & creativity. Celebrity factor. Focus on exposure
What are active audiences? Interested and engaged people who seek sophisticated and supplemental information.
TRUE OR FALSE: Full campaigns must only address specific audiences (passive or active.) FALSE Must address both.
What six things must an audience do in order for communication to be successful? R.P.U.R.A. Receive the message. Pay attention. Understand the message. Believe the message. Remember the message. Act on the message.
What are the five stages of adopting a message? AIETA: Awareness. Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption
Define evaluation. The systematic assessment of a PR program and its results. It is a mean for practitioners to offer ACCOUNTABILITY to clients ... and to themselves.
What is the criteria for evaluation? Realistic, credible, specific and aligned with expectations.
Define output measuring. Measuring production of messages.
What are examples of measuring output? - Number of media releases/ media kits. - Knowing the circulation of the media channel (who reads/ watches.) - Comparing media coverage with cost of advertising space.
Why is outcome measurement important? Outcomes matter the most.
TRUE OR FALSE: Outcome measurement is costly but effective. CORRECT
How do focus groups measure outcome? They measure audience response.
_______ is key in assisting us with persuasive communication, specifically as it relates to media relations. Theory.
How is theory used in PR? Helps us understand why PR is practiced the way it is (descriptive theory.)
What is PR theory always rooted in? The needs of the "profession."
What are some supplementary evaluation activities? Event attendance Content and Analysis Communication Analysis Newsletter and Websites Survey attendees as they leave Numbers of hits Satisfaction reports.
"_______ is dialogue between points of view in the marketplace of public opinion." - Toth & Heath Persuasion
_______ = The sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals. Public Opinion
TRUE OR FALSE: Public opinion is not primarily determined by self-interest. FALSE: Public Opinion IS primarily determined by self-interest. Events, words or other stimuli affect opinion if related to self-interest.
TRUE OR FALSE: Persuasion is an important part of democratic society and PR. TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE: The amount of exposure effects how persuasive communication is. FALSE..
Okay so I don't know how to put the 'eight factors in persuasive communication' in flashcard form. CLICK HERE So study it on your own <3
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