psychology chapter 4

Daisy  U
Flashcards by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U over 5 years ago


AS - Level psychology (chapter 4 - approaches in psychology ) Flashcards on psychology chapter 4, created by Daisy U on 11/03/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
psychology the scientific study of the human mind and its function, especially those functions affecting behaviour in a given context
science a means of aquring knowledge through systematic and objective investigation. the aim is to discover general laws
introspection the first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
behaviourist approach a way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
classical conditioning learning by association (Pavlov's dogs)
operant conditioning learning by consequences - Skinner's box
reinforcement a consequence of behaviour that will increase the likelihood of behaviour being repeated (positive or negative)
social learning theory a way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct or indirect reinforcement (learning and cognitive)
imitation copying the behaviour of others
identification the observer associates them with the model (increases the likelihood of copying the behaviour)
modelling observer - seeing the imitation from the participant participant - imitating the behaviour shown by the model
vicarious reinforcement behaviour is more likely to be repeated if the person modelling the behaviour is rewarded
mediational processes cognitive factors (thinking) that influence learning and come between the stimulus and the response
cognitive approach mental processes - how menat lprocesses affect behaviour
internal mental processes private operations of the mind e.g. perception and attention that mediate between stimulus and response
schema mental framework - beliefs and expectations influence cognitive processing (developed from experience)
inference the process where psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour
cognitive neuroscience the study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes
biological approach a perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetic inheritance and neutral function
genes they make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes for the physical and psychological features of an organism. they are inherited
biological structure an arrangement or organisation of parts to form an organ, system or living thing
neurochemistry relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning
genotype the genetic makeup of an individual. a collection of inherited genetic material hat is passed on from generation to generation
phenotype the observable characteristics. this is a consequence of the interaction of the genotype and the environment
evolution the changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations
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