5: English Literature

Alex Nguyen
Flashcards by Alex Nguyen, updated more than 1 year ago
Alex Nguyen
Created by Alex Nguyen almost 5 years ago
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High School Diploma English Flashcards on 5: English Literature, created by Alex Nguyen on 11/03/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the characteristics of heroic poetry * Stern, strict mood * Realistic in treatment * Claims to deal w/ exploits of heroes who have had a real place in history
What was heroic poetry replaced by The romance
What are the characteristics of romance * Escapist * The marvelous introduced for its sake * Heroine introduced * Love = important subject * Characters fight on principles or as a matter of fashion * Courtly love
Explain what courtly love is * Based on feudal system and only exists in literature * A service between master (lady) and slave (knight). The knight serves the lady of his choice, thinks only of her and is loyal to her for life. *NEVER between husband and wife
What were the knights' obligations * Must conform to strict code of honor * Must dedicate hims. to cause of women in general * Must always help damsels in distress * Must commend himself to her when he goes out for war * RARELY received a concrete award
Who divided medieval romance into 3 categories Jean Bodel (a minstrel)
What were the 3 categories of romance called and what were they about * /Matter of France/: Charlemagne and his knights * /Matters of Rome the Great/: the heroes of the Ancient world * /Matter of Britain/: King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table
In which categories do we find /Sir Gawain and the Green Knight/ In /Matter of Britain/
When and where does the story take place * During the Yuletide = Christmas time = time to eat & to be married * In England, in Camelot, at King Arthur's court
Who appears when Arthur and his knights are at the table and what does he asks A green knight on a green horse comes and asks "Which one of you have the courage to come up front and chop off my head?"
Who accepts the challenge King Arthur accepts the challenge, but the knights hold him back--> Sir Gawain takes on the challenge instead
What is the Green Knight's pact and what is Sir Gawain's response * Pact: in 1 year and 1 day, they will meet again in a green field for a tournament * Sir Gawain accepts and chops off the Green Knight's head, who picks it up, puts it back on and gallops away
One year later... Sir Gawain searches for the green field, but gets lost. He then sees a light coming from a castle. He knocks at the door, the master answers and invites him to stay
Why does Sir Gawain accept to stay Because it is not far from the green field
What is the deal made between the castle's host and Sir Gawain The host and Sir Gawain will share whatever they have gained at the end of the day
DAY 1 During breakfast, a vision comes in: a beautiful woman = the host's wife. Sir Gawain avoids the lady's advances, but gets a kiss on the cheek => hosts gives what he has bagged => Sir Gawain gives a kiss on the cheek
DAY 2 Repeat of DAY 1
DAY 3 The lady gives Sir Gawain a green sash that has magical powers: the person wearing it doesn't get killed or injured => the host gives what he has bagged => Sir Gawain gives a kiss instead of the sash
DAY 4 Sir Gawain leaves the castle for the green field. The Green Knight arrives; he is the host. They fight and Sir Gawain wins, but is badly wounded.
What happens after the battle Sir Gawain returns to Arthur's castle and tells him about everything
What started the Order of the Garter From then on, every knight of the Round Table must wear a green garter like the one Sir Gawain had
Why did Sir Gawain get badly wounded * He didn't keep his end of the bargain * He put his faith in magic instead in God * Not because he accepted the gift
What virtues a knight should have * Chastity * Charity * Courage * Courtesy * Nobility * Loyalty * Truthfulness * Piety
Which virtues Sir Gawain didn't have Truthfulness and piety
What are the 2 parts of the test Sir Gawain must pass * The beheading of the Green Knight * Resist the temptation of the lady
At that time, what other forms of literature appeared and give their definition * Fables: characters = animals * Allegories: good/evil, virtues/vices personnified * Ballads: story set to music
Give examples of names used in allegories * Man: Christian represents all the Christians * Market: Vanity Fair is where we find all the sins * Villain: No-Good-Body
What was Geoffrey Chaucer considered as? * Father of Middle English literature
What were the elements of medieval literature that found their peek in Goeffrey Chaucer's work * Christianity * Courtly love * Fables * Allegories * Romance * Political verse
What did Chaucer bring to Middle English A subtlety, polish and flexibility to Middle English
What languages had he worked with and in which one did he write He had worked in French and Latin, but chose to write in English
What is so special about his burial He was the first writer to be buried in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey
What is his most known masterpiece /The Canterbury Tales/
What is so special about that book It is the first book to be printed by the first English printer William Caxton
What is it about * In April, 29 pilgrims are at the Tabard Inn, in Southwark * On their way to Canterbury where Thomas Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) was murdered in 117 * Chaucer joins them
What does the owner of the Inn suggests * Each pilgrim will tell a story going to Canterbury and another one going back from Canterbury * The best storyteller will win a free summer at the Inn
How many stories did Chaucer write and what happened before he could write all the stories * 24 stories * Chaucer died
Why did the pilgrims ask Chaucer to shut up Because his story was so boring
Who were the pilgrims * Knight * Doctor * Cook * Squire * Merchant * Nun * Pardoner *Wife of Bath => part of classes of the 14th Century
Who tells the first story, why and what is it about * The Knight * Because he is the highest ranked member * About love, war and chivalry
Which class do the Merchant and the Miller represent The middle class
What does the majority of the pilgrims (Pardoner, Nun) represent The Church
What did Chaucer showed through some of the clerical characters The power and decay of the medieval Church
What does /The Canterbury Tales/ start off with and what is its purpose * General prologue * Gives the picture of the pilgrims
From where are taken the tales of Chaucer's pilgrims and do they reflect * From traditionnal sources * Each reflects the personnality of the presentor Example: * Miller's tale is a bawdy (humorusly indecent) romp * Knight's tale if about the ideals of chivalry * Wife of Bath's tale is a comment on marriage
What is so special about the Wife of Bath She is one of the most famous female character in English literature
Which prologue is the longuest in the book The Wife of Bath's prologue
What was she known for and what does it symbolize Her red horse is as vivid as the gap between her teeth, which is a mark of sexuality in those days
How many times was she married and widowed 5 times
What characterizes her justification It is rich in comic relief
What does she end up proving Sex isn't a sin
What is her tale about A knight who must find our what women most desire (power)
What is her idea of a proper marriage In a proper marriage, the woman rules. Both the husband and the wife are happier for it
What is a pardoner A Church official who sells divine forgiveness, pardons
What impression do we get from Chaucer's description of the Pardoner Chaucer doesn't care for the Pardoner
What does Chaucer uses to describe the Pardoner and give examples He uses animals. Examples: * Hair hangs like a rat's tail * Eyes balge out like a hare * Voice is like a goat * Looks like a gelding (castrated male horse) or mare (female horse) since he had no hair on his chin
What is the Pardoner's tale about About drinking, gambling, swearing and greed
How does the Pardoner's tale begin * In the morning, 3 drunks hear the death knell (death bell) * Ask the servant who died: "Death is o a killing spree, he killed a friend of yours"
What do the drunks decide to do after learning the sad news They decide to kill Death (think Death = person) and make a pact before running off, screaming "Death is dead!"
Who do they encounter and how do they react * They come across a poor man who is in their way * They are rude, they insult him
What do they ask the man and what does he answer * 3 drunks: "Have you seen Death?" * Poor man: "Yes, he is by that tree."
What do they find at the tree and how do they react * Bags of gold * They forget about Death
Who is chosen to go to the village and why * The youngest one * To get supplies
While the youngest is at the village, what is happening between the 2 remaining They wonder (especially the 1rst one): "Wouldn't it be nice if we divide the gold just between the 2 of us?" => they decide to kill the youngest
On the way to the village, what is the youngest thinking about "Wouldn't it be nice to have all the gold for myself?" => goes to the apothecary: buys poison and 3 wine bottles (2 are poisoned)
What happens when the youngest gets to the tree * The 2 others stab him * To celebrate, they drink the poisoned wine and die => They all found Death
Why did the drunks die Because of their greed
What was a popular play in the 15th Century /Mankind/
What was it about A poor peasant who must swear an oath of loyalty to the 7 deadly Sins
What are the 7 deadly Sins * Pride (because of Lucifer) * Greed * Lust *Gluttony * Sloth * Envy * Wrath
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