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Oxford Ib study guide

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Sustainable yield The Sustainable yield is the amount of food that can be taken from the land without reducing the ability of the land to produce the same amounts of goods in the future, without any additional inputs. If a particular type of farming leads to the building up of salt in soil or nitrates in streams, the type of farming is not sustainable.
Infant mortality rate total no. Of deaths of children<1 year old/total no. Of live births x 100 per year.
Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) a health measure based on years of “ healthy” life lost by being in poor health or in a state of disability.
Calorie intake the amount of food (measured in calories) per person per day. The largest intakes are seen in countries such as the USA, Portugal and Greece, the lower levels are seen in sub-Saharan Africa, Mongolia and Afghanistan . Newly industrialized countries such as China and India are associated with rising food intakes calories.
Access to safe water access to water that is affordable, at sufficient quantity and available without excessive effort and time. Access to safe water varies from 100% in countries with a high HDI, such as Iceland and Norway, to a low of 22% in Ethiopia, a country with a low HDI. 83% of the world’s populations have access to safe water. Parts of East Asia experience a lack of safe water.
Access to health services usually measured in the number of people per doctor or per hospital. Inequalities in health services are not just a question of the number of people per doctor or hospital bed, they are also to do with the facilities available in hospitals and clinics.
Malnutrition a diet is lacking (or has too much) in quantity or quality of foods
Starvation limited/non-existent intake of food
Temporary hunger a short term decline in the accessibility of food to a population in an area.
Famine a long-term decline in the availability of food in a region.
Fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides fertilizer use in Africa is less than 10% of Chinese levels.
Biotechnology has the capacity to create another green revolution. However much of the agricultural research and development is done by a large-scale companies (agribusinesses) in MEDCs and is concerned with food for MEDC markets rather than LEDCs
The green revolution The green revolution is the application of science and technology to increase food productivity. It includes a variety of techniques, such as engineering to produce HYVs of crops and animals, mechanization, pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers and irrigation water.
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