Developmental Psychology Chapter 7

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A set of abilities defined in various ways by different psychologists but generally agreed to include the ability to reason abstractly, the ability to profit from experience, and the ability to adapt to varying environmental contexts. intelligence
The best-known U.S. intelligence test. It was written by Lewis Terman and his associates at Stanford University and based on the first tests by Binet and Simon Standford-Binet
Originally defined in terms of a child’s mental age and chronological age; is now computed by comparing a child’s performance with that of other children of the same chronological age. intelligence quotient or IQ
Term used by Binet and Simon and Terman in the early calculation of IQ scores to refer to the age level of IQ test items a child could successfully answer. Used in combination with the child’s chronological age to calculate an IQ score. mental age
The third revision of an intelligence and is designed for children between the ages of 2½ and 7. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (the WPPSI-III)
The fourth edition of a well-known IQ test developed in the United States that includes both verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests for children age 6-16. Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (the WISC-IV)
Tests on the WISC-IV that tap verbal skills such as knowledge of vocabulary and general information. verbal comprehension index
Tests on the WISC-IV, such as block design and picture completion, that tap nonverbal visual-processing abilities. perceptual reasoning index
Timed tests on the WISC-IV, such as symbol search, that measure how rapidly an examinee processes information. processing speed index
Tests on the WISC-IV, such as digit span, that measure working memory efficiency. working memory index
The WISC-IV score that takes into account verbal and nonverbal scale scores. full scale IQ
The best-known and most widely used test of infant ‘intelligence.’ Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Test designed to assess a child’s learning of specific material taught in school, such as spelling or arithmetic computation achievemnt test
A person’s basic, underlying level of skill, displayed under ideal circumstances. It is not possible to measure it directly. competence
The behavior shown by a person under real-life rather than ideal circumstances. Even when researchers are interested in competence, all they can ever measure is this... performance
The stability of a test score over multiple testing sessions. reliability
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure validity
Characteristics of a family that affect all children in the household shared environment
Any difference between groups in IQ or achievement test scores that becomes larger over time. cumulative deficit
Characteristics of a family that affect one child but not others in the household. non-shared environment
Term used by some psychologists for the range of possible outcomes (phenotypes) for some variable, given basic genetic patterning (the genotype). reaction range
A theory advanced by Robert Sternberg, proposing the existence of three types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical. triarchic theory of intelligence
One of three types of intelligence in Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence; the type of intelligence typically measured on IQ tests, including the ability to plan, remember facts, and organize information. analytical intelligence
One of three types of intelligence described by Sternberg in his triarchic theory of intelligence; includes insightfulness and the ability to see new relationships among events or experiences. creative intelligence
One of three types of intelligence in Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence; often called ‘street smarts,’ this type of intelligence includes skill in applying information to the real world or solving practical problems. practical intelligence
Eight types of intelligence (linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic) proposed by Howard Gardner. multiple intelligences
The ability to produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems. creativity
The ability to produce multiple solutions to problems that have no clear answer. divergent thinking
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