Translation, Transcription and Regulation

Riki M
Flashcards by Riki M, updated more than 1 year ago
Riki M
Created by Riki M over 5 years ago
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Flashcards for transcription, translation and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

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Question Answer
What are the three stages of translation? - Initiation - Elongation - Termination
Initiation all the enzymes and protein bind together, form transcription bubble (consists of DNA template, RNA polymerase) and promoter begins transcription
Elongation RNA is synthesized and transcript gets bigger
Termination Formation of hairpin loop in RNA, A-T bonds break and mRNA falls off. DNA reforms double helix.
how do Eukaryotes differ in transcription? - Formation of intiation complex, multiple transcription factors. - mRNA contains 5' cap and 3' poly a tail. - splicing of introns
What are the 3 RNA involved in Translation? -mRNA (carries information from DNA to encode proteins) -rRNA (structural component of a ribosome) -tRNA (carries amino acids to ribosome for translation)
What is the structure of tRNA? One end contains anticodon loop which pairs with mRNA while other end has a charged amino acid attached (to be carried to ribosome)
What are the 3 sites on a ribosome for tRNA to bind? - E site (binds to tRNA with last amino acid exit site) - P site (binds to tRNA of growing peptide - A site (binds to tRNA with next amino acid)
What are the 3 stages of translation? - Initiation - Elongation - Termination
Translation initiation in prokayotes, initiation complex forms with tRNA, small ribosomal unit, mRNA stand
Translation Elongation Addition of amino acids occurs in initiation complex, starting at A site, when tRNA with correct codon binds. Moves along to P site and peptide grows
Translation Termination When ribosome encoutners stop codon, which is recognized by release factors, the ribsome releases the peptide. (in E site)
what is the lac operon? an operon which controls gene expression and breaks lactose for energy
the lac operon is negatively regulated, what does this mean? a repressor will bind to an operator to stop transcription from occurring and does this when no lactose is present.
What does an inducer do in the lac operon? binds to the repressor, preventing it binding to the operon and transcription proceeds
What does glucose do to the lac operon? glucose prevents induction of lac operon via cAMP which binds to the operon. Occurs when glucose levels are low.
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