Learning

Grace Feakes
Flashcards by Grace Feakes, updated more than 1 year ago
Grace Feakes
Created by Grace Feakes over 7 years ago
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Description

Undergraduate Psychology (Learning) Flashcards on Learning, created by Grace Feakes on 12/05/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
As conditions change we____new behaviours and____old ones 1. learn 2. eliminate
Why do we eliminate certain behaviours? They are no longer of use to us due changes in conditions
Learning theory The laws of learning discovered by theorists
Give 2 advantages of learning theory 1. applies across many species, not just humans 2. applied in many contexts where behavioural change is desirable
Name the 3 categories of learning Habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning
Single stimulus Habituation
Stimulus-stimulus Classical conditioning
Response stimulus Operant conditioning
Pavlovian conditioning is also known as... Classical conditioning
Instrumental conditioning is also known as... Operant conditioning
Habituation When we learn not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly
Orienting response A behavioral reaction to a changed, new, or abrupt stimulant. Commonly referred to as orienting reflex
An____response will cause you move towards an unexpected noise Orienting
Classical conditioning Form of learning where one stimulus is paired with another so the the organism learns a relationship between the stimuli
Distinguish between innate and learned behaviours Innate-> is developmentally fixed, despite differences in environments Learned-> is modified by our experiences
Pavlov believed behaviour was____. Reflexive
After Pavlov's experiments, what changed in terms of the dog's' salivation? The dogs were trained to respond to a neutral stimulus i.e. what was originally a neutral stimulus became a conditioned stimulus
Habituation and classical conditioning both involve learning about____stimuli External
Involves learning about relationships between our own responses and their consequences (effects have have on the environment) Operant conditioning
What happens in Thorndike's law of effect experiment? (the one with the cat in the box) The cat eventually learns to escape (effective escapes increase) however there was no proof that the cats were aware of any connection
Operant In Skinner's system, an instrumental response thats defined by its effect (the way it operates) on the environment
Response amplitude The strength of the response
Acquisition The first stages of learning when a response is established
The more pairings introduced, the____the conditioned response Higher
How is intensity related to the strength of the conditioned response? The more intense/strong the unconditioned stimulus, the higher the conditioned response
Delayed presentation When the CS is presented slightly before the US so there is a delay between the two
Comment on the effectiveness of simultaneous presentation Very little predictive value, is a lot less effective than delayed presentation, no useful associations are made
Backward presentation US is presented before CS (e.g. the food is presented to the dog before the tone)
What may the effectiveness of trace presentation depend on? The strength of the delay between the CS and US
Which method of presentation is most effective? Delayed presentation
What does the optimal delay depend on? The unconditional stimulus being presented
Extinction When stimuli cease to be predictive and the effects of conditioning drop off
When does extinction occur? When animals need to adapt their performance in a particular behaviour due to a change in experience
Spontaneous recovery After the rest period (when neither CS or US are presented) the next presentation of the CS will produce a CR again
True or false: Spontaneous recovery only happens once after extinction False, it can occur multiple times, however each time the CS gets weaker
Why does spontaneous recovery occur? Because the context has changed
Total extinction When spontaneous recovery no longer occurs
Higher order conditioning Once a CS-US association has been established the CS can be used to condition further stimuli
High order conditioning
True or false: first-order conditioning produces a higher CR strength than second-order True
The tendency for stimuli similar to those used during learning elicit a reaction similar to the learned response Stimulus generalisation
True or false: when presented with a slightly higher/lower tone than that presented in training, the animal will produce a lower response True
Different consequences may follow the same behavior in different situations. When we respond differently in those different situations, we have formed a discrimination between the situations. Stimulus discrimination
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