Nazi Germany 1929-45

Iona Diack
Flashcards by Iona Diack, updated more than 1 year ago
Iona Diack
Created by Iona Diack over 5 years ago
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History Nazi Germany

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Question Answer
How did the Wall Street Crash help Hitler become a Chancellor in 1933? The Wall Street Crash or 'The Depression' because Germany couldn't pay back the loan to America led to people in Germany to lose their jobs because trade and businesses came to a halt and because the Weimar Government couldn't figure out a solution to get the county out of poverty and so the German people looked to Extremist parties (like the Nazis) to give them a solution.
How did the weakness of the Weimar Government help Hitler to become the Chancellor in 1933? The Weimar government tried but failed to help the country bounce back from the depression or the Wall Street Crash because of proportional representation and the constitution meaning that no single party could take control which meant that no one could agree on one solution which lead to the public hating the government and turning to extremist parties like the Nazis.
How did the Weak Opposition help Hitler to become the Chancellor in 1933? The two main rivalling parties to the Nazis were the Social Democrat Parties (SDP) and the communists party. The SDP and the communists refused to work together and so no one else was able to stop the nazi party rising to power because they didn't have the power.
How did the Communist Threat help Hitler to become the Chancellor in 1933? The increasing support for the communist party scared many German people (especially the business men) this was due to a combination of street violence with the police and the communist ideas about controlling business and farming. The nazis then turned their ideas and the German's fear of communism to their advantage in their campaigning.
What were the effects of the treaty of Versailles on Germany? The new republic (the Weimar Government) got off to a bad start because it was associated with the treaty (which was very hated) Opponents of the Republic (like the army) blamed the government for signing the treaty and referred to them as the 'November Criminals' (referencing to the signing of the treaty) Germany couldn't afford to pay the reparations. The treaty took away important areas that could make money for the country like the Cornfields of the Saar.
What was the weakness of the Weimar Government? Proportional representation, which meant that 1 party couldn't make decisions without a majority which rarely happened as most of the larger parties couldn't agree with one another and didn't work together. Proportional representation also encouraged lots of small parties which contributed
How did Hitlers Leadership help him to become Chancellor in 1933? Hitler was a strong leader and he was able to make people believe that he alone could fix the problems that Germany was facing at the time just in the way he made his speeches and delivered himself and because this gave people hope that the problems could be fixed by him.
How did decadence help Hitler become chancellor in 1933?
How did the Nazis Propaganda and Promises help Hitler to become Chancellor in 1933? Goebbels' propaganda campaign was very effective and it won support for the Nazis. The Nazis targeted specific groups of society with different slogans and policies to win their support.
How did Nazi Campaigning and Organisation help Hitler to become Chancellor in 1933? Goebbels' propaganda campaign was very effective and it won support for the Nazis. The Nazis targeted specific groups of society with different slogans and policies to win their support.
How did the Political Deal help Hitler to become chancellor in 1933? Because the other two chancellors before him (Franz Von Papen, Von Schlicher) weren't fully supported (Not supported by the Army, Not supported by the Reichstag), Hindenburg wanted a popular chancellor and after Hitler refuses the Vice chancellor position on the 30th Of January, Hindenburg gives Hitler the chancellorship because both he and Von Papen thought that they would of been able to control Hitler
How did the Reichstag Fire help Hitler change Germany from a democracy to a Dictatorship? The Reichstag fire (27th February 1933) helped the Nazi party and Hitler because when a communist was found at the scene of the crime (Van Der Lubbe) Hitler and the nazis were quick to blame the communist party and persuaded Hindenburg to pass an emergency law this gave him an opportunity to imprison many communist leaders, which stopped them campaigning during the election. It allowed the Nazis to say that the country was in danger from the communists during its election campaign. Both these actions helped the Nazis to win more seats in the election. When the courts convicted Dutch Communist van der Lubbe, but did not convict other Communist leaders, Hitler was furious and replaced the courts with the Nazi People's Courts.
How did Article 48 Emergency Powers help Hitler to change Germany from a Democracy to a Dictatorship? This gave Hitler the control over the police and then arrests the communist party and other political oppositions to the nazis, which then weakens the nazis political opposition, making their party a much stronger one. Arguably the critical event - it gave Hitler absolute power to make his laws.
How did the March 1933 elections help Hitler to change Germany from a Democracy to a Dictatorship? Because the Nazis got 44% of the votes, but needed 2/3's of the votes to pass the enabling act, and so saw the growing support for the nationalist party and decided to form a coalition with the nationalist party to get their majority in the Reichstag.
How did the Enabling act hep Hitler to change Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship? The enabling act, which would allow Hitler to make his own laws without consulting the Reichstag and the approval of the president. After the enabling act was passed by 444 votes to 94, it then destroyed the Weimar constitution and in the 'new elections' it saw that the Nazis were the only party allowed to stand, Making Germany a one-party state, making it a dictatorship.
How did the banning of Trade Union help Hitler to change Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship? The trade unions, that tended to be anti-nazi, were abolished and all of their offices destroyed, It also gave Hitler the opportunity to set up the German Labour Front, which gave him control over German workers.
How did the banning of other political parties help Hitler change Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship? The Social Democratic party was banned and along with other opposing parties and in July there was a rule formed that stated that no new parties could be made and that the Nazis were the only party allowed in Germany, and this destroyed democracy in the country. After this action, Germans could no longer get rid of Hitler in an election.
How did the night of the long knives help Hitler change Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship? When the SA started to stir up trouble because they still wanted a socialist revolution and were becoming to strong and powerful to control and wanted to merge with the army which Hitler didn't want as the army still had the power to over throw Hitler, he complied a Hit list of SA member that he viewed as disloyal or unruly and on the night of the both of June 1934, the SS And the Police force kill and arrest dozens of the SA leaders, wiping out all of the major opposition within his own party. It gave power to the brutal SS. It also showed the rest of the world what a tyrant Hitler was.
How did the death of Hindenburg help Hitler change Germany form a democracy to a dictatorship? When Hindenburg died, Hitler merged the position of the Prudent and the Chancellor to become the ' Führer' of Germany, gaining complete control of Germany.
How did the army oath help Hitler to change Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship? The army oath helped Hitler because it secured the army and his supreme control over Germany, because the army was now faithful to Hitler and Hitler only.
What was the SS and Gestapos way of instilling fear and terror into the German people? The SS used to scare people into supporting Hitler, like threatening to send them to concentration camps, or searching their houses or arresting people without trial. The Gestapo used to arrest people on suspicion and put them in concentration camps, they also got rid of anyone anti-nazi and they had complete control of Hitlers opposition.
What was the Concentration camps way of instilling fear and terror into the German People? They kept the people that opposed to the Nazi rule and made them think like nazis, they also used to beat random people, gave them hard discipline and made them do hard labour. The concentration camps allowed Hitler to get rid of his opposition by jailing them and so it left only Nazi supporters.
What was the Local Wardens way of instilling fear and terror into the German People?
What was the Enabling acts way of instilling fear and terror into the German people?
What was Henrich Himmlers way of instilling fear and terror into the German people? He was the leader of the SS and was known for being cruel and instilling cruel punishments.
What was the informers job in instilling fear and terror into the German people?
How was the newspapers made into propaganda? All newspapers were controlled by the Nazis and so they were only allowed to print things that they approved of, and any anti-nazi newspaper was shut down.
How was the Radio turned into propaganda? Cheap radios were mass produced and so most german people had a radio, and the nazis then Goebells made sure that every story ran and radio plays were Nazi.
How was the Cinema turned into propaganda? The nazis took control of the film industry and most German films of the 1930's showed the great German heroes defeating their enemies and the cartoon were used to show Jewish people as weak and devious
How were posters used as propaganda? Posters were cleverly used to put across the nazi messages with the young being particularly targeted with this form of propaganda.
How were rallies used as propaganda? Mass rallies were held every year to advertise the power of the nazis and the most spectacular one was held in august in Nuremberg, and many nazi supporters turned up to listen to choirs and sang songs, watched sporting events and watched firework displays.
How was censorship used as propaganda? People only saw what the nazis wanted them to see ( indoctrination) and so no opposition to the nazis through media was abolished, also censorship laws were introduced that took away peoples right of freedom of speech, and a law against malicious gossip was introduced in 1934 which forayed people to tell anti-nazi stories or jokes and if you were found guilty of these crimes you would of been sent to concentration camps. The Gestapo had many secret informers who would tell people if they had heard people spreading around anti-nazi lies.
What was the 'Thousand year Reich'? Hitlers belief that young people were the future of Germany so it was vital to him that he had the support of the younger generation and he viewed the older generation as 'used up and weak' and he intended to make the younger generation athletic and strong.
How did Hitler control the Teachers and how did this help him to control the German people? He made sure that every teacher joined the NSTB (The National Socialist Teachers League) and all of the member had to be Aryan. Every teacher also had to undergo special indoctrination games and attend special lectures.
What was the league of the German Maidens and how did it help Hitler control the German people? The Young Girls League was part of the League of German Girls, but catered for young girls aged from ten years to fourteen years. Once girls in the Young Girls League had reached fourteen they moved to the League of German Girls this was all part of the umbrella of the Hitler Youth movement that was separated into boys and girls sections.
How did Hitler control the school curriculum and how did it help him to control the German people? The school subject underwent a major change to get across the nazi message to the German youth. Biology became a study of the different races to prove the Nazi belief in Aryan superiority, Geography became the study of the land taken off Germany in 1919. Girls and boys had a different curriculum and the girls focused on Domestic Science and Eugenics.
What were some of the resistance groups against the Nazi reign and control over Germany and what did they do? The White Rose Movement; Students who were appalled at the lack of opposition to Hitler and Nazi violence especially against Jews. They consisted of a small group of Students at Munich University led by Hans and Sophie Scholl, their target was the educated middle class and they put up posters, handed out leaflets and scribbles anti-nazi graffiti on walls. The Edelweiss Pirates; a group of teenagers who were mostly of middle class status were in opposition to the Hitler Youth and conscription. They were not an organised movement, but the independent youth gangs that they created were seen as opposition to the nazis rule. When the Nazis method of trying to get rid of this opposition (putting members into concentration camps) didn't work, the Gestapo broke up the groups and arrested the leaders (late 1942)
How did Hitler control the churches? In 1933, the Catholic churches signed an agreement with Hitler and both sides decided not to interfere with each other and the Nazis in effect took over the Protestant churches in Germany under the Reich Church. Many protestants accepted this because they were nazi supporters even though many Christian elements of worship weren't allowed.
What were the public work programmes? The Nazis implemented a major programme of public works, such as building and repairing roads, railways and houses. This significantly helped reduce unemployment, as did large-scale military rearmament. With Germany building up its armed forces, thousands of jobs in iron, steel, aviation and shipbuilding were created.
What was rearmament and conscription? Rearmament was the rearmament of the German army and it created thousands of jobs in Arms factories and it greatly boosted heavy industry. Conscription was forcing certain groups of people (Men aged 80-25) to join the army or do military service for 2 years.
What was the national Labour Servie and how did it help to boost the German economy? The RAD (National Labour Service) sent young men on public works, such as building railways, autobahns, digging ditches, planting trees for forests and other manual jobs. The National Labour Service was set up for men aged 18-25 and was part of a plan by Djamal Schacht to reduce unemployment.
Who were the people involved in 'invisible unemployment' and how did this boost the economy? Women were forced out of their jobs which were then given to men this boosted the economy, because women were given financial incentives to stay at home and so this was not included in unemployment figures. Jewish people were also forced out of their professions such as teaching and law jobs, and replaced by Nazi supporters and these were also not included in the unemployment figures.
What was the 'self sufficiency' policy and how did it they try to do it? Create an economically self-sufficient Germany (Autarky). In order to be economically self-sufficient, Germany searched for artificial ingredients to replace things like oil, rubber, textiles and coffee. This was not a success. Agriculture suffered due to a shortage of workers and machinery. Germany continued to import a lot of goods such as butter, oil and vegetables. In 1939, it was importing 33 per cent of its raw materials. There was a shortage of food in Germany.
What was the 'strength through joy' programme? It was control leisure time through German labour front It gave the working German people cheap holidays for working hard Buying cheap cars (Scheme failed) The Nazis were the first to discover breast cancer screening and were the first to discover that smoking caused cancer.
What were the German women reduced to and what were women not allowed to do/ look like? Women were expected to stay at home and look after the family. Women doctors, teachers and civil servants were forced to give up their careers. Even at the end of the war, women were never asked to serve in the armed forces. Their job was to keep the home nice for their husband and family - their life should revolve round the three 'Ks': church,children, cooking Hitler wanted a high birth rate, so the population would grow. The Nazis even considered making it law that families should have at least four children. Girls did keep fit in the BDM to make themselves healthy for childbirth, but they were discouraged from staying slim, because it was thought that thin women had trouble giving birth.Women were supposed to emulate traditional German peasant fashions - plain peasant costumes, hair in plaits or buns and flat shoes. They were not expected to wear make-up or trousers, dye their hair or smoke in public.
What was the cause of Kristallnacht and what were the events that occurred ? In 1938 a polish jew shot a German diplomat in Paris, Hitler then ordered an immediate attack on jewish people and their property in Germany between the 9th and 10th of November and thousands of Jewish businesses were smashed, Synagogues were burned down.
How did the Nazis persecute the Jewish people in Germany (Nuremberg laws, Kristallnacht, Wansee Conference)? 1933- There was a boycott of Jewish businesses Jewish civil servants, lawyers and teachers were sacked and replaced Race Science (Biology) taught Hitler youth that Jewish people are 'Untermensch' 1935 -'Jews not wanted here' signs were put up in public places (Swimming pools etc.) The Nuremberg laws, which stated that Jewish people weren't citizens, couldn't vote or marry a German citizen. 1938 - Jewish people couldn't be doctors Jewish people had to add Israel to their name (men) or Sarah (Women). Jewish children were forbidden to go to school Kristallnacht attack on the Jewish and their properties 1939 - Jews were forbidden to own a business or own a radio Jewish were forced to live in Ghettoes 1941 - In Russia Mass-shootings of Jewish people were carried out All Jewish were fired to wear a star of David on their clothing 1942 - Wansee Conference (20th January) decided on the 'final solution' which was to gas all of Europe's Jewish people. These were known as Death Camps
What was the impact on Germany in the second world war and who was affected the most? Air raids on Germany's cities were a lot more frequent and heavier from 1942 onwards. the bombing destroyed factories and transportation links which contributed to more problems of food shortages. 2 million homes were destroyed in total by 1943. It was hard to keep up morale once rationing had started
Which groups of people were prosecuted by the Nazi racial policies? The Nazis killed 85% of Germany's Gypsies Sterilised Black people Killed mentally disabled babies Killed mentally ill patients sterilised physically disabled people and people with hereditary diseases Sterilised deaf people Put Homosexuals, prosititues, Jehovah's witnesses, alcoholics, pacifists, beggars, hooligans and criminals into concentration camps
How was the arts in Germany controlled? The nationalist socialist for german culture was formed and it banned many artists and authors that they viewed as anti-nazi and named them degenerate. All books were carefully controlled and censored by the state to put across the Nazi message. Goebbles encouraged students in Berlin to burn 20,000 books written by jews, communist and other anti-nazi authors in a massive bonfire in 1933.
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