Archaeology Sites to know

Kay_C
Flashcards by Kay_C, updated more than 1 year ago
Kay_C
Created by Kay_C over 7 years ago
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ANT 104 (Exam III) Flashcards on Archaeology Sites to know, created by Kay_C on 12/10/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Knossos -Knossos=most powerful monarch for Minoans -on Crete -frescoes on palace walls -Palaces controlled all agricultural goods and products by storing in large storerooms -Palaces became the centers of exchange for Minoan economy
Athens/ Parthenon -Athens= center of democracy w/in Greece (only polis to employ it) -Parthenon= built during time of Athenian democracy (under Pericles) -Parthenon -> built to honor Athena, state treasury held there -Parthenon-> exterior decorated w/ sculpltures (i.e.: in friezes & pediment)
Thebes/ Sparta -both= polis/ city-states -> meaning that each had their own form of gov't, laws, & $
Poverty Point -Northern American culture (Eastern) -Largest poverty point culture site ->situated overlooking the Mississippi floodplain near the confluences of 6 rivers -structures built on mounds bcuz on a flood plain -trade hub (peaked btween 1400-1100 BCE)
Chaco Canyon/ Pueblo Bonito -AD 900-1150 -located in American SW (NM) -imp: pueblo society (i.e.: Pueblo Bonito), maize cultivation (by AD 490) -artifacts: building constructions (pithouses (which bcome kivas),kivas, pueblos) -Pueblo Bonito: largest ancient dwelling & largest known ancestral puebloan dwelling -> built up slowly (peaked @ 175 rooms)
Mesa Verde -North American cultural period (SW-> CO) -Cliff dwellings (probably chosen bcuz of natural springs nearby) -large pueblo contains more than 200 small rooms plus kivas. Some of the construction is four storied. -ceremonial temples (i.e.: Sun Temple -> argued uses: astrological, palace protection) -black-on-white pottery
Grave Creek Mound -North American cultural period (Adena Complex site in WV) -Construction of the mound took place in successive stages from about 250-150 B.C., as indicated by the multiple burials at different levels w/in the structures. -In 1838, road engineers measured its height at 69 ft and its at the base as 295 ft. -Originally a moat of about 40 ft in width and five feet in depth w/ one causeway encircling it.
Cahokia/ Monks Mound -east-northeast of Saint Louis on Cahokia Creek -@ peak it may have had some 20,000-30,000 inhabitants (by AD 1050-1150, was regional center for the Mississippian culture w/ many satellite communities, villages & farmsteads around it. -City center is basically diamond shaped with an interior palisade -Monks mount (in city center)-> never a burial mound, only made to put structures on
Machu Picchu -S. American culture (Peru-> saddled btween 2 peaks in the Andes) -a complex of temples, palaces & observatories -believed to be the home of Inca ruling classes -Incas seemed to base site's construction of spring nearby-> Hydrology (canals, fountains, irrigation & drainage/sewage systems) -Agricultural(terraced side), Urban, & Religious( included Intihuatana (alter) &temple of the sun) -
Cuzco -South American culture -major city -> near Machu Picchu -Inca Civilization
Nazca Lines -lines made by moving rock to reveal yellow clay beneath to make designs such as: a bird, a monkey, a spider, a whale, a flower, etc. -suspected reasons for construction: (1) astrological connections (charting the stars); (2) ocean (bcuz ancient Nazca ppl fished in ocean)-> believed that they are pictorials of animals/ creatures ppl saw; (3) outline underground waterways
Serpent Mound -Effigy Mound of Eastern N. american cultural period (in OH)
Mycenae -Fortified (walled) Aegean Greek Mycenaean site -Lion's Gate -ruins of palace display defense/ protection tactics in doubled-walls & escape passages (part of their warring status)
Tikal -Mesoamerican cultural period (Mayan city in the rain forest of Guatemala) -priests thot to direct rural, peasant rituals from city's center -craft specializations -built on a series of low ridges bcuz in a swampy area
Chichén Itzá -Mesoamerican cultural period (late Mayan center in Yucatán) -Late in the tenth century A.D.,Chichén Itzá was rebuilt in an architectural style similar to that found at Tula. – During this time, the site grew to its maximum size, more than 2 sq mi. –largest ball court in Mesoamerica built here.
San Lorenzo -Mesoamerican cultural period (Oldest Olmec site occupied by 1500 B.C.) –Pottery found from earliest period -Monumental sculptures not until 1250 B.C -> i.e.: colossal heads (-Carved from basalt floated on huge rafts from Tuxtla mountains. –Ended around 900 B.C.;all monoliths intentionally mutilated/buried) -20 Lagunas -> ritual bathing
La Venta -Mesoamerican cultural period (Olmecs) -Contemporaneous w/ later phases of San Lorenzo, but persists -Includes mounds,plazas,tombs, basalt slab enclosures,& a clay pyramid. -Buried stone offerings:jade and serpentine;colored clay floors;mosaics;jaguar masks;stone figurines -Colossal heads
Teotihuacán -mesoamerican cultural period (established by the end of 2nd century B.C in Basin of Mexico) -multi-ethnic city -By the 1st century A.D.,Teotihuacán became primary settlement in the Basin -water canals & agricultural intensification to support its growing population -obsidian usage -Pyramids of the sun and moon-> exteriors believed to have been faced w/ white plaster & painted red to enhance visibility -multi-housed residentials
Tenochtitlán -Mesoamerican cultural period (Aztec->founded in A.D. 1325 on small, marshy island.) -developed into the largest & most powerful city in Mesoamerica (resources & control) -Basic residential units at Tenochtitlán were occupied by nuclear or joint families. – Individual compounds permitted public display of status & wealth->achieved status ideals (military & economic success) -commercial center -Cortés quickly and easily defeated the Aztecs
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