Psychology Vocabulary 1

Sarah Baldwin
Flashcards by Sarah Baldwin, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah Baldwin
Created by Sarah Baldwin about 5 years ago


First chapter of psychology definitions

Resource summary

Question Answer
Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental (cognitive) processes of humans and animals
Wilhelm Wundt used method of introspection, known as the father of modern psychology and proved that psychology could be a science; structuralist
Structuralism psychology centered on the analysis of the structure or content of conscious mental states by introspective methods
Introspection observation or examination of one's own mental and emotional state
William James wrote the Principles of Psychology, also known for the James-Lange Theory of Emotion; a functionalist
Functionalism emphasizes the adaptiveness of mental and behavioral processes
Psychoanalysis a method of studying the mind and treating mental/emotional disorders based on investigating the role of the unconscious mind
Gestalt Psychology based on the study of a subject's response to integrated wholes rather than separate experiences
Phrenology a psychological theory based on the belief that certain mental problems and character traits are indicated by the skull
Behaviorism the theory that human or animal psychology can be accurately studied only by examination of behavioral events
John B. Watson the father of behaviorism, also did the Little Albert experiment; focused on behavior instead of mentality
"Little Albert" John Watson's experiment; an eleven month old boy was taught to fear a white rat when it was accompanied by a loud sound
Ivan Pavlov "Pavlov's dog" experiment where a dog was taught to salivate at the sound of a bell in anticipation of food when it was not present; behaviorist
B. F. Skinner theory of operant conditioning, which uses reinforcers/consequences to change behavior; behaviorist
Humanistic Psychology the belief that humans have free will and can change their fates; think that psychology should focus on how and why humans experience things
Abraham Maslow created Maslow's Hierarchy of needs; the father of humanistic psychology
Carl B. Rogers created the unconditional positive regard theory; believed that humans are driven towards self-actualization; focused on the human as a person rather than an object
Nature vs. Nurture Nature: because of their genes and their ancestors, a person is a certain way. Nurture: because of their experiences and their past, a person is a certain way.
Basic Research vs. Applied Research Basic Research: conducted with the intent of simply increasing the knowledge base, not to fix a problem. Applied Research: conducted to solve problems, find cures, help people, etc.
Clinical Psychology to assess, diagnose, and treat/prevent mental disorders
Psychiatrist similar to a psychologist but different in the fact that a psychiatrist can prescribe medication for a mental illness and has a medical degree
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I/O Psychology) studies the relationships between someone and their job/work and attempts to improve job satisfaction and increase productivity
Human Factors Psychologist studies how the human mind and body interacts with its tools and environment; seeks to create ways that humans can interact with the modern world that are more psychologically and ergonomically friendly
Physiological scientific study of the body and its systems
Cognitive study of mental processes and the mind of humans and/or animals
Dualism the theory that the human mind and body are two separate entities that come together to make a person
Biopsychology how the brain interprets physical movement/things
Evolutionary Psychology the belief that natural selection and our ancestors directly cause problems, such as fears, in our lives
Sociocultural Psychology based on the belief that society and culture shape cognition
Trephination a surgical procedure where a piece of the skull is removed and a hole is left in the skull
"tabula Rasa" the idea that your mind is a "blank slate" and that your experiences shape you in your life
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