Personal Trainer flash cards

JFritch
Flashcards by JFritch, updated more than 1 year ago
JFritch
Created by JFritch about 5 years ago
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Description

SOME QUICK FLASH CARDS FOR BECOMING A PERSONAL TRAINER. some more will be added through out.

Resource summary

Question Answer
A client should see a Dr. if there is concern of? 3 things Respiratory disease Cardiovascular disease joint inury
3 behavior aspects that contribute to positivity- R. E. P. R: Reinforcing- E: Enabling- P: Predisposing-
* Peripheral * Superficial * Outside- near the surface outside of * Being on the surface of
* Superior * Inferior * Above/Upper part of body * Below/Lower part of body
* Circum-locution * Rotation * Circular movement such as arm circles * Internal rotation
* Flexion * Extension * Flexing a muscle. Making a muscle hard and work- Lowering in a push up * Straightening. Push up to Push out
* Pronation * Supination (under pronation) * Rolling of the foot inward- pushing off the big toe in a run * outward roll of the foot in a run
Bi-ceps Where & what? Frontal/ Anterior part of the body above the forearm. Bi= 2 muscle heads that stretch down the medial of forearm
Tri-cep Where and what Back part of the arm/ posterior Tri= 3 muscle heads that extend down into the elbow. works to extend the elbow
* Hypo-extension * Hyper-extension * less extension from tightness in the muscle * Over extended of the muscle
What is a "Prime mover"? Larger muscle that starts the work and activates a smaller muscle. AKA: Agonists
Quads Where and what? Anterior/ Frontal part of the body below the transverse - the thighs Functions the leg helps to lift the legs and function the knees
what does ADL stand for? Activities of Daily Living
________ is the condition of your current state of being Health
Respiratory Breathing/ lungs inhale oxygen exhale carbon dioxide
True or False Muscles have MORE than 1 starting point and share a ending point.. TRUE
What can be classified as being voluntary & what is involuntary? Voluntary: Muscles that you can control. Arms. legs, etc. Involuntary: Muscles/ tissues you cannot control. Heart. organs
* Bi-lateral * Uni-lateral Bi=(two) Both sides (front/ back Left/ Right) Uni=(one) one side
* Medial * Lateral * Towards the middle (moving the limbs back towards the middle) *Away from the middle (raising arms up)
Skeletal Make up of the bones- 206 bones in the adult body. Bones are for movement. protection. calcium
Nervous system cells and fibers transmit nerve impulses
5 Components of Physical fitness Cardiovascular endurance: "cardio" being able to keep up with breathing Muscular strength: Power of lifting Muscular endurance: Muscles being able to be used in amount of time Flexibility:ROM Body Composition: BMI- body fat
4 types of muscle contraction? ISO: KINETIC: short bursts METRIC: no movement TONIC ECCENTRIC: negative TONIC CONCENTRIC: simple positive
The ADULT spine has how many vertebrae? 24
NO control Can control Involuntary: heart/ brain/ organs Voluntary : arms/ legs/ hands/ feet
What are smooth muscles? INVOLUNTARY occurring in the gut and other internal organs and not under voluntary control.
* Dorsiflexion * Plantarflexion * Pointing the toe up towards the shin * Pointing the toe downward (tip toes)
What does the small intestine do the most of? most absorption of nutrients
This muscle contracts as it flattens and helps with breathing. Diaphragm
Blood travels away through______ and blood comes back to the heart through ______ Arteries and Viens
Tough flexible connective tissue that covers the ends of bones. Cartilage
206 what are in the adult body? Where are the majority of them? BONES Hands and feet
What division of the nervous system sends and receives info. It contains brain and spinal cord CNS Central Nervous System
What part of the body (location) is considered the center? HIPS/ transverse plane
Antagonist Muscles are what.. They are PRIME MOVERS they act with agonistics as a pair. One relaxes while the other contracts. Ex: bicep and tricep -Quads and hamstrings -elbow/ forearm
* PROXIMAL *DISTAL * close to each other *farther away from- more DIStant is the ankle distal to the hip
* Front of the body * Back of the body * Anterior / Frontal * Posterior (post aka past)
*Abduction *ADDuction *Taking away from the body *ADDing to the body
When a client is unbalanced in squats or knees come in.. what is weak? Abs and back
What kind of stretching should the P.T. do on a client? PASSIVE- client remains relaxed
S.P.I.C.E.S 6 COMPONENTS OF WELLNESS S: social health- interacting face to face- no social media P: physical health- strength I: intellectual- new concepts C: cognitive- brain development- mental E: emotional- "self" esteem, image, awareness S:spiritual-connection with higher power
*Reproductive system * Urinary system * Sex organs- baby makers- hormones-fluids *"Plumbing system" cleanses the body of toxins through the kidneys- removes wastes
* Endocrine * Integu-ment-ary * Collection glands- produce of hormones, metabolism, sleep moods * Skin, hair, nails- protects from the outside elements & damage
What does the word cardio mean? Heart & Vascular
Tendon Strong tissue connects muscle to bone ex: achilles tendon
* Digestive System * Immune system * Organs working to convert food to energy * Protects against disease. detects viruses
Average of 656 what are in the ADULT body MUSCLES
3 types of muscle tissue SMOOTH CARDIAC SKELETAL
MUSCULAR SYSTEM MUSCLES HAVE BLOOD VESSELS, TENDONS, NERVES PRODUCE HEAT protect bones 656
CIRCULATORY CIRCULATION CARDIOVASCULAR: BLOOD CAN CIRCULATE & TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS
3 DIVISONAL PLANES 1 movement for each TRANSVERSE: center (waist)- bending at the waist or rotations FRONTAL: front & back sides- pull downs & lateral raises SAGITTAL: R & Left sides- walking & lunges
Process by which blood flows between the heart and lungs is.... Pulmonary circulation
Process by which blood is carried away from the heart to the body is systemic circulation
2 phases in a single cycle of cardiac activity... (aka, blood pressure) SYSTOLic: top number. higher. Active phase 120/80 or less is normal 140/90 is high DIASTOLic: LOWER NUMBER IN PRESSURE RESTING PHASE
Protein that carries oxygen in the BLOOD to the body is called... & protein carrier of oxygen in the MUSCLE tissue is called... myoglobin & hemoglobin
What does insulin do? removes glucose from the blood stream
SCAPULA is where/ what? SHOULDER BLADE
clavicale collarbone
Another word for THIGH bone FEMUR
STERNUM chest bone
This TISSUE type attaches bone to bone Ligaments
THE POINT at where the muscle joins the stationary bone Origin
Your FEET turn AWAY FROM ONE ANOTHER when walking or running.. E-VERSION
2 Examples of a flat bone CRANIUM & ribs
BLOOD FLOWS AWAY FROM THE HEART TO THE body systemic circulation
Where is the cardiac muscle in the heart only it's involuntary
THE "POWER HOUSE " of the cell MITOCHONDRIA, is inside a cell produces energy needed for daily activity and recovery
Digestive process I.D.A.U Ingestion: food to mouth Digestion: through mouth to stomach Absorption: to small intestine Utilization: goes to appropriate location
physical and chemical reactions in the body that use or convert energy is what.. METABOLISM
LIVER CHANGES SIMPLE SUGARS TO WHAT... FAT
BODY REQUIRES 3 MACRO-NUTRIENTS CARBS FATS PROTEINS
USABLE FORM OF SIMPLE SUGAR GLUCOSE
How many grams of protein can be taken in 3-4 hours 20 grms LESS THEN 1/4 CUP
IF THE CLIENT STRUGGLES WITH WEIGHT LOSS, COULD BE BECAUSE OF.. HEREDITY TO MUCH JUNK FOOD not following plan MEDICAL CONDITION
PROTEINS BECOME BROKEN DOWN INTO AMINO ACIDS
3 muscle fiber types/ twitches I: RED/ SLOW IIA: RED / FAST IIB: WHITE / FAST
MICRO nutrients water, vitamins, minerals
This vitamin aids the metabolism B
THIS neccesity maintains body temps. contributes to over 50% of internal chemical reactions WATER
3 descriptions of HEAT STROKE *VERY HIGH body temps *dehydration *lack of sweat
When dehydrated the body will do what increase in temps as well as increase in heart rate
how many oz of water is recommended within 30 mins of exercise 16-24oz
3 descriptions of HEAT EXHAUSTION * Headache & dizzy *pale skin * rapid breathing
How do you prevent heat STROKE *do not work out in extreme heat *DRINK H20 or sports drink *No booze or caffeine before a workout
when to use sports drinks & why *NOT to be used in all exercise situations *intended to replace water & electrolytes *ONLY BEST for clients doing prolonged strenuous exercise.
Aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration means without air. energy is released from glucose and other foods without the presence of oxygen.
base time (how much time & days) for a general client to work out 15 - 60 mins 3-5 days a week
components of cross training program? 4 THINGS 1.strength & power 2.cardio 3. flexibility 4. aNOTHER sport activity
When dieting to lose weight, CONCENTRATE ON LOSING MORE WHAT? FAT NOT WEIGHT. CONCENTRATE ON FAT % NOT THE WEIGHT. IF YOU CONCENTRATE ON WEIGHT YOU WILL LOSE MUSCLE. (unless you measure BMI)
proper rest between sets if you are working out for strength? 3-5 mins
what is best for adequate repair of tissues rest after training
3 Body types aka: somatotypes ENDO-MORPH: curvy or over weight MESO-MORPH: athletic ECTO-MORPH: skinny/ thin
3 major considerations to maintaning a healthy back POSTURE STRENGTH FLEXIBILITY
F.I.T.T F:REQUENCY I:NTENSITY T:IME IT LASTS T:YPE OF EXERCISE
Before exercising when should a client eat a WHOLE meal What is suggested to have 15mins before exercise ? *almost up to 2 hours if intense workout. * small source of protein such as a protein bar or a shake.
VO2 MAX TEST ASSESSES FOR WHAT CARDIO RESPIRATORY CONDITION how much oxygen is taken in during exercise
VERTICAL JUMP- TESTS FOR WHAT POWER
SIDE RAISES WORK WHAT SHOULDERS
TO MOVE THE BODY IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS IN RAPID SPEEDS AGILITY
For Endurance and fat loss: what are the rep ranges 20-25
should a personal trainer manage dietary needs for clients? NO. a dietician should
How many 8 oz of water is recommended 8-10 glasses 8 x 8 rule: 8 -8oz glasses
what part of the body does the push up work on CHEST 2nd: arms/ triceps
OVER HEAD EXTENSIONS WORK WHAT TRICEPS
9% OF THE U.S. POPULATION HAS THIS... DIABETES
WHAT CAN INCREASE WITH AGE? HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
ANGINA is what? possibly coronary heart disease pain in the chest radiating down the arm could be stress related 
INFLAMMATION OF JOINTS THAT CAUSES PAIN & STIFFNESS ARTHRITIS
WHAT IS HYPERTENSION? HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
P.R.I.C.E P: protection R: rest I: ice C: compression E: elevation
Beginning signs (AKA: cardinal signs) of a injury are: (4 things) PAIN SWELLING WARMTH REDNESS should clear up with in 24-72 hours
HOW LONG SHOULD YOU ICE A INJURY 15-30 MINS EVERY 2-4 HOURS
HOW LONG SHOULD YOU HOLD COMPRESSION TO A INJURY 30 + MINS- ALLOW FOR BLOOD FLOW
HOW HIGH SHOULD A INURY BE ELEVATED 6-12 INCHES ABOVE HEART
WHERE ARE THE OBLIQUES side abs
prone position is what? face down
a 18 year old slender male wants to gain 30lbs of muscle ... how long will it typically take? 4-6 months
what % of cells in the body are muscle tissue cells? 60%
what kind of a mover is a ---AGONIST IS A WHAT? PRIME MOVER
WHAT IS A COMPOUND MOVEMENT? A exercise that engages two or more different joints to fully stimulate entire muscle groups or multiple muscles.
S.A.I.D S: SPECIFIC A: ADAPTATION to I: IMPOSED D: DEMAND
4 PHASES FOR WORKING OUT 1. WARM UP 2. FLEXIBILITY 3. STRENGTH 4. COOL DOWN/ STRETCH
MITOCHONDRIA PRINCIPLE MUSCLES cells HAVE TO ADAPT BACK TO LIFTING AND STRENGTH TRAINING & FAT LOSS
performance based tests looking for the number of pull ups, push ups, crunches your client can do is what... muscular endurance
the GIRTH of a muscle is its ... SIZE
absolute range of motion in joints is... flexibility
STATIC or DYNAMIC is what? STRETCHING: Static is the more common stretches: hold for 10-30 seconds Dynamic is: movement of stretch, it is not held. (good for a warm up)
EXERCISES USING JUST YOUR BODY WEIGHT IS WHAT.. CALISTHENICS or resistance training
LARGEST CONTRIBUTOR TO INJURY AMONG CLIENTS IMPROPER FORM
FOR WOMEN BODY FAT SHOULD NOT EXCEED___% AND FOR MEN SHOULD NOT EXCEED___% 25 & 18
performing in the 20-25 rep range is good for what... ENDURANCE & FAT LOSS
WORK OUT AT LEAST THESE MANY DAYS A WEEK & this amount of mins.. 3 15-60 mins
RPE RATE of PRECIEVED EXERTION
SPRAIN SPRAIN refers to a LIGAMENT(bone to bone) to partially or completely tear or overstretch. ankle, knee, or wrist. SYMPTOMS involve bruising, swelling & pain reduced ROM.
STRAIN A 'strain' refers to a stretch or tear in a MUSCLE or TENDON symptoms: pain, swelling, muscle spasms, and limited ability to move the muscle.
In females what is a side effect of steroid use? developing several male characteristics.
Overload Principle Once a muscle has gotten used to a certain weight, it must be challenged and "stressed" with a increase in weight to achieve your goal size
HOW MANY REPS FOR a GENERAL WORK OUT TYPICAL 12 -15 REPS 3-5 SETS
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A WARM UP? TO GET BLOOD FLOW TO THE MUSCLES TO WORK PROPERLY DURING ACTIVITY. avoid injury- do not go into a exercise cold!
BODY TYPE THAT IS SKINNY ectomorph
me-somorph athletic body type
proper way to breath on a rep Breath in during negative, exhale during positive (pushing out, extending).
BIOMECHANICS STUDY OF MECHANICAL MOVEMENT OF THE BODY, with STUDIES OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FORCES
COLLATERAL CIRCULATION CIRCULATION IN TISSUE WHERE NUMEROUS PATHS EXSIST.
WHAT EXERCISE WORKS THE HAMSTRINGS? HAMSTRING CURLS
WHAT SHOULD YOUR RECOVERY HEART RATE BE FOR ENDURANCE/ FAT LOSS 125
THIS HEART RATE IS WHAT IT SHOULD BE BEFORE BEGINNING THE NEXT SET RECOVERY HEART RATE
WHAT IS THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD THE CALORIC ENERGY NEEDED TO DIGEST FOOD
HOW MANY CALORIES IN A LB OF FAT? 3,500
best supplement over all other supplements multi-vitamin
the body views this as the most efficient source of survival energy. FAT
Keto-acidosis very high blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetes
some fat loss methods 3 things 1: eat smaller - more meals 4-5 2: higher reps 3: more duration of exercise
Negative effects of over training.. 3 things 1: to many sets 2: to enough energy protein 3: not enough calories
How can you speed up metabolism? 2 things 1: Resistance exercise 2: eat more small meals in the day
waiver of liability does what protection of the personal trainer in a lawsuit
lymph nodes are what? Are throughout the body and act as filters or "germ traps" Containing thousands of white blood cells which fight off bad germs.
ADIPOSE IS WHAT? FAT TISSUE STORAGE
OXIDATIVE SYSTEM TAKES EFFECT IN WHAT AEROBIC ACTIVITY? 1/2 MARATHON
WHAT DOES MYOSIN BIND TO? ACTIN
WHAT muscle IS THE RECTUS FORMUS? thigh MUSCLE
besides high blood pressure., what is a major health factor? type 2 diabetes
When you flex your hip, what muscle does the work? PSOAS MAJOR (loin region) - on either side of the lumbar region.
WHAT GRADE LEVEL OF A MUSCLE STRAIN IS VERY SEVERE & the highest in pain? GRADE 3
THE BODY CAN TAKE UP TO 8-10 OZ OF WATER IN THIS AMOUNT OF TIME EVERY 15 - 20MINS
RPE SCALE (RATE PER EXERTIONS) is what? A scale a client can describe what the intensity the activity is...describing how their breathing is on scale of 1-10
OXIDATIVE SYSTEM THE USE OF OXYGEN INCREASING WITH INTENSITY OF LONG DURATION OF TRAINING - SUCH AS 1/2 MARATHON
AEROBIC METABOLISM DURING ACTIVITY, INCREASED AMOUNTS OF FATTY ACIDS & OXYGEN ARE USED
2 ways to measure body fat 1. caliper 2. bod pod
at least 3 things to ask your client in their assessment. 1. age 2. wieght 3.occupation and/ or...height, sleep patterns, stress? diet
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