BIOLOGY- Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology

Julissa Romero
Flashcards by Julissa Romero, updated more than 1 year ago
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Describe the properties of being alive 1. Must have cells! 2. Maintain internal environment (homeostasis) 3. use energy 4. grow and develop 5. interact with the environment 6. Reproduce 7. share ancestry 8. evolve
Outline the levels of biological organization AMCTOOPCEB atoms--> molecules--> cells--> tissues-->organs-->organisms-->populations--> community --> ecosystems-->biosphere
Define Scientific Inquiry 1) Discovery Science ex: babies 2) Hypothesis Testing Science ex: making an observation and turning into a hypothesis such as maple trees fall in autumn when the days get colder and shorter
Define hypothesis Proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon (testable, falsifiable, verifiable)
Define Scientific Theory broad scope, supported by accumulated evidence from many hypotheses, leads to new hypotheses, can be modified or rejected
Cell Theory 1) all organisms are composed of one or more cells 2) cells are the smallest unit of life 3) new cells come from pre existing cells by cell divion
Principle 2: Living organisms use energy use the energy to maintain their internal order ex: algae harness light energy via photosynthesis
Principle 4: Living organisms maintain homeostasis living cells and organisms regulate their cells and bodies to maintain relatively stable internal conditions
Principle 9: Structure determines functions Example: a cellular protein called actin naturally assembles into structure that are filaments: the function of these filaments is to provide support shape to cells or a birds wings to swim
Principle 10: New properties of life emerge from complex interactions Emergent properties: When individual components in an organism interact with each other or with the external environment to create structure and functions Example: human eye us composed of different type of cells that are organized to sense incoming light and transmit signals to the brain
Atoms smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of the element
difference between Molecules & macromolecules atoms bond together form molecules & smaller molecules bonded together to form a large polymer is a macromolecule
cells contains a variety of molecule and macromolecules also smallest units of life
tissues many cells of the same type associate with each other to form tissues
organs composed of two or more type of tissues
organisms all living things
population a group of the organisms of the same species
community assemblage of populations of different species that live in the same environment
ecosystem interactions between a community of organisms and its physical environement
biosphere the regions on earth and in the atmosphere where living organisms exist
vertical descent new species evolve from pre-existing ones by the accumulations of mutations
horizontal gene transfer a process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism example: transfer of antibiotic resistance gene from one bacterial species to another via horizontal gene transfer
levels of biological organization 1) atom 2) molecule 3) macromolecule 4) cell 5) tissue 6) organ
taxonomy the grouping of species
three domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya
Prokaryotic bateria and archaea
eukaryotic eukarya ; nucleus is surrounded by membrame
Discovery based science the collection and analysis without having a preconceived hypothesis
hypothesis testing observations --> hypothesis --> experiment--> data--> reject or support hypothesis?
System Biology Understanding how emergent properties arise from complex interactions ex try to characterize an entire cellular process which is driven by dozens of different proteins
Making a good hypothesis Falsifiable Testable Verifable
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