Chapter 25/28 Flashcards

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PSYB65 Flashcards on Chapter 25/28 Flashcards, created by andreaarose on 12/14/2013.

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Created by andreaarose almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Compensation compared with recovery Most changes after brain damage are due to compensation not recovery of missing brain areas - 3 legged cat.
Ischemia Loss of blood supply, changes in pH and cell membrane. Release of glutamate and open Ca+ channels, mRNA stimulated - inflamed tissue.
Diaschisis Sudden loss of function in a portion of the brain connected to a distant, but damaged, brain area
Recovery from hemiplegia Motor cortex damage - return of reflexes, rigidity. Development of voluntary grasping - takes 23-40 days. Occurs in 30%.
Recovery from aphasia Head injuries show most rapid and complete recovery. Least severe with anomic patients, most with global aphasics - 3 months. Language in RH most resistant to damage.
Recovery from traumatic lesion 4% recover from motor defects, 36% recover from somatosensory defects, 43% recover from visual defects, 24% recover from dysphasia, 50% none
Dorsolateral frontal lesions No recovery in card sorting
Right temporal lesions No recovery on the Rey figure
Bilateral temporal lobe removal No recovery
Left temporal lesions Significant improvement after 5-20 years.
Employment and recovery Employment = measure of recovery, 80% recovery.
Return to daily life Social relationships and leisure suffers. Often ignores coping mechanisms being used.
Post stroke changes Improvement in sensorimotor cortex, larger regions of activation in the parietal and premotor areas during language and motor functions, reorganization takes place bilaterally and declines with age and stroke size.
Age Younger patients = more recovery.
Sex and handedness Produces differences in cerebral organization
Intelligence Higher intelligence = more recovery.
Personality Optimism, extroversion and easygoing = more recovery.
Rehabilitation Social interaction and environmental stimulation are important.
Movement therapy Motor training stimulates plastic changes in the brain.
Cognitive rehabilitation Hard to develop real world tasks that will benefit patient outside of system.
Pharmacological therapies Compounds can facilitate plastic changes in the brain, work by reducing inflammatio
Brain stimulation – TMS – Promising without complications
Brain-Tissue Transplants and Stem-Cell Induction Fetal stem-cell transplants for Parkinson’s patients, could cultivate stem cells from the individual’s body
First tests of neuropsychological assessment Goal was to establish a cutoff between brain damaged and non-brain damaged
Functional imaging Identify changes in cerebral processing via images, patients referred for general cognitive functioning, does not predict the extent of behavioral disturbances
Cognitive neuroscience in the 1950-1980's Development of test batteries - still used cut off scores.
Cognitive neuroscience in the 1990's Cognitive theory and structural and functional imaging used to understand the brain.
Managed care Produces pressure to reduce time and money
Clinical assessment Focus on treatment reduce costs, efficient, monitor progress evaluation
Standardized tests Easy to administer, need to understand the brain to interpret
Luria's neurological approach Strategy for examining the brain, tailored to each person
Factors affecting test choice What area of the brain is damaged, how sensitive is the test, what are the individual characteristics?
Goals of neurological assessment Diagnose the presence of cortical damage, facilitate patient care, identify unusual brain organization, cause of disorders, rehabilitation
WAIS Subscales for verbal ability and performance, rough measure of RH LH functioning. Pre injury intelligence unknown.
Waber and colleages Data on children age 6-18 on a wide range of measures, linked to an MRI developmental database
Sports medicine assessment Automated batteries for tracking concussion.
Neuropsychological tests and brain activity Neuropsychological tests produce localized and distributed activation, also influenced by individual differences.
Malingering Exaggerating cognitive deficits.
Green and colleagues Effort influences performance more than brain damage