UNIT 4: Genetic Processes 3 &4

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UNIT 4: Genetic Processes 3 &4
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Mendel's Law of Segragation - Mendels first law which states that two alleles for a trait or gene separate during meiosis
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment - Mendel's second law that states that genes that segregate independently in meiosis do not influence each other's inheritance
Define allele, gene and dominant Allele: alternative version of a gene Gene: unit of inherited information that carry a code for a specific trait or function Dominant: allele that determines the trait that a heterozygous individual expresses
Define recessive, genotype and phenotype Recessive: allele that is not expressed in a heterozygous individual Genotype: genetic makeup or combination of alleles for an individual Phenotype: an organsims expressed physical, physiological and behavioral traits
Define zygote, homozygous and heterozygous Zygote: diploid cell that forms when gametes fuse and eventually develops into a distinct individual Homozygous: having 2 alleles identical to each other Heterozygous: having 2 alleles that are different from each other
Define Genotypic ratio and phenotypic ratio Genotypic Ratio: The expected numbers of different genotypes produced by a particular cross. Example: 1 RR, 2 Rr, and 1 rr individuals could result from a cross of two Rr individuals. The genotypic ration is 1:2:1. Phenotypic Ratio: The ratio of the offspring determined through their phenotype as predicted from a test cross.
Define P Generation, F1 Generation and F2 Generation P Generation: refers to the traits or genes that are passed on from one parental generation to their offspring F1 Generation: first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F2 Generation: the generation produced by interbreeding individuals of an F1 generation
Allele for tall pea plants is dominant over the allele for short pea plants. If you cross a homozygous tall plant with a short plant what will the genotype and phenotype be? Genotype: Tt (heterozygous, tall) Phenotype: tall Genotype F2: 1:2:1 ( 1: TT, 2: Tt, 1: tt) Phenotype: 2 tall, 1 short
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