Unit 2 Exam Review

Josefina Gonzalez
Flashcards by , created almost 4 years ago

Immunology

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Josefina Gonzalez
Created by Josefina Gonzalez almost 4 years ago
Immunology MCQs PMU
Med Student
T cell receptor-MHC interactions
sophietevans
Immunology
Nur Fadzliyana
Present Simple/Past Simple Tenses
learning.buzz.in
Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde - Characterisation
Calum Mooney
Basic Immunology Principles
Robyn Hokulani-C
Immunology Quiz Personal MedStudent
Med Student
Microbiology and Immunology
AchalaM
Mnemonics for VACCINES
Tamara Ey Firsty
Biology AQA Immuonolgy
evie.daines
Question Answer
THE SITE OF HEMATOPOIESIS IN THE FIRST MONTH OF GESTATION IS THE? YOLK SAC
THE PRINCIPAL TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IN THE PROCESS OF PHAGOCYTOSIS IS THE? NEUTROPHIL
CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE REPRESENTS A DEFECT OF? OXIDATIVE METABOLISM
A PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE EOSINOPHIL IS? SUPPRESSION OF THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
THE CELLS OF THE MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM INCLUDE? BOTH A AND B: MONOCYTES, PROMONOCYTES, AND MACROPHAGES
THE HOST DEFENSE FUNCTION OF MONOCYTES-MACROPHAGES INCLUDE? ALL OF THE ABOVE: ANTIGEN PRESENTATION , PHAGOCYTOSIS, AND SECRETION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE MOLECULES
THE SURFACE MHC CLASS 2 GENE PRODUCT IS IMPORTANT IN? ANTIGEN RECOGNITION BY T LYMPHOCYTES
WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE ABNORMALITY ASSOCIATED WITH WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME? DEFECTIVE MONOCYTE CYTOTOXICITY
WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE ABNORMALITY ASSOCIATED WITH BURNS OR DIABETES? DEPRESSED MIGRATION
WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE ABNORMALITY ASSOCIATED WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS? IMPAIRED PHAGOCYTOSIS
WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE ABNORMALITY ASSOCIATED WITH CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY? DEFECT IN PHAGOCYTIC KILLING
WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE ABNORMALITY ASSOCIATED WITH INTRACELLULAR INFECTIONS? DEFECTIVE RELEASE OF MACROPHAGE-ACTIVATING FACTORS
ARRANGE THE STEPS OF PHAGOCYTOSIS IN ORDER? INCREASE IN CHEMOATTRACTANTS AT SITE OF TISSUE DAMAGE - MOVEMENT OF PHAGOCYTIC CELLS - INGESTION OF BACTERIA - DIGESTION OF BACTERIA
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES (PMN)? PRIMARY PHAGOCYTIC CELLS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF LYMPHOCYTES? RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN ANTIGEN AND PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODY
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF MONONUCLEAR MONOCYTES-MACROPHAGES? PRIMARY PHAGOCYTIC CELLS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PLASMA CELLS? ANTIBODY-SYNTHESIZING CELLS
WHAT IS THE SITE OF INITIAL RBC PRODUCTION IN A FETUS/EMBRYO? YOLK SAC
WHAT IS THE PREDOMINANT SITE FOR HEMATOPOIESIS FROM 2-5 MONTHS OF FETAL LIFE? LIVER AND SPLEEN
WHAT IS THE ULTIMATE SITE OF PRIMARY HEMATOPOIESIS? BONE MARROW
PATIENTS WITH A MARKED DECREASE IN NEUTROPHILS OR SEVERE DEFECTS IN NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION HAVE? ALL OF THE ABOVE: A HIGH RATE OF INFECTION, RECURRENT SYSTEMIC BACTERIAL INFECTIONS, RECURRENT LIFE-THREATENING FUNGAL INFECTIONS
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC GRANULOMATOSUS DISEASE? FAILURE TO EXHIBIT INCREASED ANAEROBIC METABOLISM DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAZY LEUKOCYTE SYNDROME? DEFECTIVE LEUKOCYTE LOCOMOTION
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEDIAK-HIGASHI ANOMALY (SYNDROME)? MARKED DEFECT IN CELLULAR RESPONSE TO CHEMOTAXIS
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MYELOPEROXIDASE DEFICIENCY? MILD OR MARKED DEFECT IN BACTERICIDAL ABILITY OF NEUTROPHILS
T/F: EOSINOPHILS PARTICIPATE IN HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS? FALSE
T/F: BASOPHILS REACT WITH TWO ADJACENT IgA MOLECULES ON MAST CELLS FALSE
THE CELLS THAT CONSTITUTE THE PHYSIOLOGIC, MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM DO NOT INCLUDE? POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHILS
WHAT MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC CELL IS FOUND IN THE BRAIN REGION? MICROGLIAL CELLS
WHAT MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC CELL IS FOUND IN THE NECK REGION? MACROPHAGES
WHAT MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC CELL IS FOUND IN THE LIVER REGION? MACROPHAGES AND KUPFFER CELLS
WHAT MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC CELL IS FOUND IN THE INTESTINAL REGION? HISTIOCYTES (TISSUE MACROPHAGES)
WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF PHAGOCYTOSIS? CHEMOTAXIS - ADHERENCE - ENGULFMENT - PHAGOSOME FORMATION - FUSION - DIGESTION AND DESTRUCTION
A FUNCTION OF THE CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH HUMORAL IMMUNITY IS? INITIATION OF REJECTION OF FOREIGN TISSUES AND TUMORS
THE PRIMARY OR CENTRAL LYMPHOID ORGANS IN HUMANS ARE THE? BONE MARROW AND/OR FETAL LIVER AND THYMUS
T/F: SYNTHESIS OF ANTIBODY IS A FUNCTION OF T CELLS? FALSE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF T CELLS? CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF B CELLS? HUMORAL RESPONSE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF K-TYPE LYMPHOCYTES? ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT, CELL-MEDIATED CYTOTOXICITY (ADCC) REACTION
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF NATURAL KILLER (NK) CELLS? CYTOTOXIC REACTION
WHAT SURFACE MEMBRANE MARKER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALL OR MOST T LYMPHOCYTES? CD3
WHAT SURFACE MEMBRANE MARKER IS ASSOCIATED WITH HELPER-INDUCER T CELLS? CD4
WHAT SURFACE MEMBRANE MARKER IS ASSOCIATED WITH SUPPRESSOR-CYTOTOXIC T CELLS? CD8
T/F: CD4 IS A B CELL SURFACE MEMBRANE MARKER? FALSE
WHICH MAJOR TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IS AFFECTED BY THYMIC HYPOPLASIA? CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED? CONGENITAL T CELL DISORDER
WHICH MAJOR TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IS AFFECTED BY AIDS? CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED? ACQUIRED T CELL DISORDER
WHICH MAJOR TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IS AFFECTED BY CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA? CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED? ACQUIRED T CELL DISORDER
WHICH MAJOR TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IS AFFECTED BY SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS? CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED? ACQUIRED T CELL DISORDER
WHICH MAJOR TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IS AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE MYELOMA? CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED? AQUIRED B CELL DISORDER
WHICH MAJOR TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IS AFFECTED BY BRUTONS AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA? CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED? CONGENITAL B CELL DISORDER
MOST DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH A PRIMARY DEFECT ARE ___ DISORDERS? B CELL
SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY IS CAUSED BY? INAPPROPRIATE DEVELOPMENT OF STEM CELLS
DIGEORGES SYNDROME IS CAUSED BY? FAULTY EMBRYOGENESIS
THE MAJOR CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF A B CELL DEFICIENCY IS? INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
BRUTONS AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA IS A? SEX-LINKED GENETIC DISORDER
DOES POISON IVY HYPERSENSITIVITY RESULT IN A SECONDARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY? NO
THE SECONDARY LYMPHOID TISSUES IN MAMMALS ARE? BOTH B AND C: LYMPH NODES AND SPLEEN
IN MAMMALIAN IMMUNOLOGIC DEVELOPMENT, THE PRECURSORS OF LYMPHOCYTES ARISE FROM PROGENITOR CELLS OF THE? BOTH B AND C: LYMPH NODES AND SPLEEN
THE THYMUS IS EMBRYOLOGICALLY DERIVED FROM THE? PHARYNGEAL POUCHES
WHAT ARE THE SITES OF SECONDARY TISSUE ON THE BODY? SPLEEN, LYMPH NODES, AND PEYERS PATCHES (INTESTINES)
THE PROCESS OF AGING CAUSES THE THYMUS TO? BOTH A AND C: DECREASE IN SIZE AND LOSE CELLULARITY
T LYMPHOCYTES CAN ALSO BE REFERRED TO AS? MEMORY CELLS
T/F: T LYMPHOCYTES CAN SYNTHESIZE AND SECRETE IMMUNOGLOBULIN? FALSE
WHICH CELLS FUNCTION TO SECRETE A VARIETY OF CYTOKINES? HELPER OR REGULATOR T CELLS
WHICH CELLS FUNCITON TO RECOGNIZE ANTIGENS ASSOCIATED WITH MHC CLASS 1? CYTOTOXIC OR EFFECTOR T CELLS
WHICH CELLS FUNCTION TO INHIBIT RESPONSE OF HELPER T CELLS? SUPPRESSOR T CELLS
NATURAL KILLER CELLS DO WHAT? ALL OF THE ABOVE: PRODUCE INTERFERON, PRODUCE IL-2, AND WERE PREVIOUSLY CALLED NULL CELLS
K-TYPE CELLS DO WHAT? DESTROY BY CYTOTOXIC REACTION
WHICH TESTS ARE USED TO EVALUATE ALL SUSPECTED IMMUNODEFICIENCIES? ESR, CBC WITH PLATELET EVALUATION
WHICH TESTS ARE USED TO EVALUATE ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY? SCREENING FOR ANTI-A AND ANTI-B ISOAGGLUTININS, SCREENING FOR ANTIBODIES TO DIPHTHERIA OR TETANUS TOXOIDS
WHICH TESTS ARE USED TO EVALUATE T CELL DEFICIENCY? ABSOLUTE LYMPHOCYTE COUNT, INTRADERMAL SKIN TEST
WHICH TESTS ARE USED TO EVALUATE PHAGOCYTIC CELL DEFICIENCY? ABSOLUTE NEUTROPHIL COUNT
WHAT % OF IMMUNODEFICIENCIES DO T CELL DISORDERS ACCOUNT FOR? 7%
WHAT % OF IMMUNODEFICIENCIES DO B CELL DISORDERS ACCOUNT FOR? 53%
WHAT % OF IMMUNODEFICIENCIES DO SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCIES (SCIDS) ACCOUNT FOR? 23%
WHAT % OF IMMUNODEFICIENCIES DO DISORDERS OF PHAGOCYTOSIS ACCOUNT FOR? 14%
THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM IS? ALL OF THE ABOVE: A HEAT-LIABLE SERIES OF PLASMA PROTEINS, COMPOSED OF MANY PROTEINASES, AND COMPOSED OF THREE INTERRELATED PATHWAYS
T/F: CD3 IS A COMPLEMENT CONTROLLING PROTEIN? FALSE
THE THREE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAYS CONVERGE AT THE POINT OF CLEAVAGE OF COMPLEMENT COMPONENT ___? CD3
T/F: DECREASED CELL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PHAGOCYTOSIS RESULTS FROM COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION? FALSE
WHAT IS THE ACTIVATION SEQUENCE OF THE CLASSIC COMPLEMENT PATHWAY? C1 - C4 - C2 - C3 - C5 - C6 - C7 - C8 - C9
WHAT COMPLEMENT COMPONENT IS PRESENT IN THE GREATEST QUANTITY IN PLASMA? C3
WHAT IS THE CORRECT ORDER OF SEQUENCE OF THE CLASSIC COMPLEMENT PATHWAY? RECOGNITION - ENZYMATIC ACTIVATION - MEMBRANE ATTACK
T/F: FIXATION OF THE C1 COMPLEMENT COMPONENT IS RELATED TO THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF THE ANTIBODY? FALSE
AT WHICH STAGE DOES THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM REACH ITS FULL AMPLITUDE? C3
THE FINAL STAGES (C8 AND C9) IN COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION LEAD TO? CELL LYSIS
WHICH PATHWAY IS ACTIVATED BY ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES? CLASSIC PATHWAY
WHICH PATHWAY GENERATES AN ACTIVE (C3b, Bb) C3 CONVERTASE AND IS ACTIVATED BY MICROBIAL AND MAMMALIAN CELL SURFACES? ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY
WHICH PATHWAY TERMINATES IN A MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX? CLASSIC AND ALTERNATIVE PATHWAYS
THE ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY IS? BOTH B AND C: PREDOMINANTLY A NON-ANTIBODY-INITIATED PATHWAY AND IS ACTIVATED BY FACTORS SUCH AS ENDOTOXINS
WHICH CONDITION CAN BE ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERCOMPLEMENTEMIA? MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
WHICH DEFICIENT COMPONENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH XERODERMA PIGMENTOSA? C8
WHICH DEFICIENT COMPONENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH LEINERS DISEASE? C5 DYSFUNCTION
WHICH DEFICIENT COMPONENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH RAYNAUDS PHENOMENON? C6 AND C7
WHICH DEFICIENT COMPONENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH RECURRENT PYROGENIC INFECTIONS? C2
A NONSPECIFIC COMPONENT OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS? BOTH A AND B: COMPLEMENT AND T CELLS
T CELL GROWTH FACTOR IS THIS IL AND IT ENHANCES CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF LYMPHOKINE-ACTIVATED KILLER CELLS (LAK)? IL-2
LYMPHOCYTE-ACTIVATING FACTOR IS THIS IL AND IT IS A POTENT MEDIATOR IN ACUTE-PHASE RESPONSE? IL-1
B CELL GROWTH FACTOR 2 IS AND ACTIVATES EOSINOPHILS?? IL-5
MULTICOLONY COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR IS WHICH IL AND IT STIMULATES HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS? IL-3
NK CELL STIMULATORY FACTOR IS AND IT ENHANCES THE ACTIVITY OF CYTOTOXIC EFFECTOR T CELLS? IL-12
WHICH IL STIMULATES NEUTROPHILS IN CHEMOTAXIS AND STIMULATES EARLY B CELL PROGENITOR CELLS? IL-8
WHICH IL INDUCES ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE AND INDUCES THE SECRETION OF Ig? IL-6
WHICH IL STIMULATES EXPANSION OF IMMATURE T AND B CELLS AND ACTIVATES THE RESPIRATORY BURST? IL-7
WHICH IL ENHANCES PRODUCTION OF IgG ND INHIBITS PRODUCTION OF IgE BY ACTIVATED B CELLS? IL-4
WHICH IL INHIBITS CYTOKINE SYNTHESIS? IL-10
WHICH IL INCREASES THE NUMBER OF IgG-SECRETING B LYMPHOCYTES? IL-11
WHICH IL STIMULATES PROLIFERATION OF T CELLS AND MAST CELLS? IL-9
WHICH IL INHIBITS ACTIVATION OF MACROPHAGES? IL-13
WHICH IL IS PRODUCED IN RESPONSE TO VIRAL INFECTION? IL-15
WHICH IL ACTS AS A T CELL CHEMOATTRACTANT? IL-16
WHICH IL ACTS AS A B CELL GROWTH FACTOR? IL-14
WHICH IL ACTS AS A SYNERGIST WITH IL-12? IL-18
WHICH IL SUPPRESSES ACTIVITIES OF Th1 AND Th2? IL-19
WHICH IL IS ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN INFLAMMATION? IL-20
WHICH IL INDUCES GRANULOPOIESIS? IL-17
WHICH IL PROMOTES INCREASED PRODUCTION OF T CELLS? IL-21
WHICH IL IS SOMEWHAT SIMILAR TO IFN-a, IFN-b, AND IFN-y? IL-22
WHICH IL IS A MEMBER OF THE IL-17 CYTOKINE FAMILY? IL-25
WHICH IL SHARES SOME IN VIVO FUNCTIONS WITH IL-12? IL-23
T/F: CYTOKINES SECRETED BY LYMPHOCYTES ARE ALSO CALLED LYMPHOKINES? TRUE
T/F: CYTOKINES ARE POLYPEPTIDE PRODUCTS OF ACTIVATED CELLS. TRUE
T/F: CYTOKINES ARE RELEASED ONLY IN RESPONSE TO SPECIFIC ANTIGENS. FALSE
T/F: MOST CYTOKINES HAVE MULTIPLE ACTIVITIES AND ACT ON NUMEROUS CELL TYPES. TRUE
WHAT IS UNABLE TO STIMULATE T CELL PROLIFERATION? TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR
WHAT ACTS BETWEEN LEUKOCYTES? INTERLEUKINS
WHAT WAS DISCOVERED IN VIRALLY INFECTED CELLS? INTERFERONS
WHAT PROVIDES A LINK BETWEEN THE LYMPHOID HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM? COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS
TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS? ALL OF THE ABOVE: ARE PRODUCTS OF VIRALLY TRANSFORMED CELLS, CAN BE A POTENT INHIBITOR OF IL-1-INDUCED T CELL PROLIFERATION IN THEIR BETA FORM, AND ARE IMPORTANT IN INFLAMMATION, TUMOR DEFENSE, AND CELL GROWTH
WHICH ACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH INTERFERON? INTERFERES WITH VIRAL REPLICATION
TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR (TNF) DIFFERS FROM IL-1 IN THAT TNF IS NOT ABLE TO? STIMULATE T CELL PROLIFERATION
WHAT STIMULATES HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR? COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS
WHAT IS THE ENCODING GENE LOCATED IN THE HLA REGION BETWEEN THE HLA-DR AND HLA-B LOCI TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR
WHAT INDUCES PHENOTYPIC TRANSFORMATION IN NON-NEOPLASTIC CELLS TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS
T/F: THE QUALITY OF TEST RESULTS IN AN AGGLUTINATION REACTION DEPENDS ON WHETHER THE CARRIER IS ARTIFICIAL OR BIOLOGICAL. FALSE
FLOCCULATION PROCEDURES DIFFER FROM LATEX AGGLUTINATION PROCEDURES BECAUSE? SOLUBLE ANTIGEN REACTS WITH ANTIBODY
IN A HEMAGGLUTINATION TECHNIQUE, ANTIHUMAN GLOBULIN IS USED AS AN ENHANCEMENT MEDIUM TO DETECT ___? IgM
THE PROZONE PHENOMENON CAN RESULT IN A? FALSE-NEGATIVE REACTION
THE EFFECT OF COMPETING ANTIBODIES SEEKING TO ATTACH TO ANTIGEN SITES IS CALLED? STERIC HINDRANCE
THIS METHOD CAN NOT BE USED TO ENHANCE THE AGGLUTINATION OF IgG ANTIBODIES? ACIDIFYING THE MIXTURE
ALL THE ERYTHROCYTES ARE COMBINED INTO ONE SOLID AGGREGATE; CLEAR SUPERNATENT IS WHAT GRADE? 4+
FEW ISOLATED AGGREGATES; SUPERNATENT APPEARS RED IS WHAT GRADE? MIXED FIELD
MEDIUM-SIZED AGGREGATES; CLEAR SUPERNATENT IS WHAT GRADE? 2+
A FEW SMALL AGGREGATES; TURBID AND REDDISH SUPERNATENT IS WHAT GRADE? 1+
A CLASSIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETECTION OF VIRAL ANTIBODIES IS? INDIRECT HEMAGGLUTINATION
PRECIPITATION IS? AGGREGATION OF SOLUBLE TEST ANTIGENS
AGGLUTINATION IS? AGGREGATION OF PARTICULATE TEST ANTIGENS
COAGGLUTINATION IS? USES ANTIBODIES BOUND TO A PARTICLE TO ENHANCE VISIBILITY OF AGGLUTINATION
FLOCCULATION IS? BASED ON THE INTERACTION OF SOLUBLE ANTIGEN WITH ANTIBODY, RESULTING IN FORMATION OF A PRECIPITATE OF FINE PARTICLES
HEMAGGLUTINATION IS? AGGLUTINATION OF ERYTHROCYTES IN TESTS FOR ANTIBODY DETECTION
ARTIFICIAL OR BIOLOGICAL CARRIERS THAT CAN BE USED IN AN AGGLUTINATION REACTION INCLUDE? ALL OF THE ABOVE: LATEX PARTICLES, COLLOIDAL CHARCOAL, AND ERYTHROCYTES COATED WITH ANTIGEN IN A CONSTANT AMOUNT
SENSITIZATION IS? BOTH A AND B: IS THE FIRST PHASE OF AGGLUTINATION AND REPRESENTS THE PHYSICAL ATTACHMENT OF ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO ANTIGENS ON THE RBC MEMBRANE
T/F: AGGLUTINATION CAN BE USED TO ENHANCE REACTIONS BY INCREASING PH OF THE REACTION FALSE
TINY AGGREGATES THAT ARE BARELY VISIBLE MICROSCOPICALLY IS WHAT GRADE? WEAK (1+ OR 2+)
SEVERAL LARGE AGGREGATES IS WHAT GRADE? 3+
NO AGGREGATES IS WHAT GRADE? NEGATIVE
T/F: THE PRESENCE OF HCG IN MATERNAL URINE OR SERUM PERSISTS THROUGHOUT PREGNANCY FALSE
T/F: HCG IS DETECTABLE WITHIN 102 HOURS AFTER THE LAST EXPECTED MENSTRUAL PERIOD FALSE
THE MOST COMMON LABORATORY METHOD FOR DETECTING HCG IS? LATEX AGGLUTINATION
IN THE LATEX AGGLUTINATION METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF HCG, NO AGGLUTINATION INDICATES THE? PRESENCE OF HCG
CAN A URINE SPECIMEN FOR PREGNANCY TESTING BE FROZEN? YES
T/F: A FALSE-POSITIVE REACTION IN A LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST FOR HCG CAN BE CAUSED BY TAKING ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE FALSE
If the first line of nonspecific body defense, intact skin, is cut with a piece of glass contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, which cellular component of the immune system quickly responds? NEUTROPHILS
Place the stages of phagocytosis in the correct sequence of occurrence chemotaxis, adherence, engulfment, phagosome formation, fusion, and digestion and destruction
Primary phagocytic cells PMN leukocytes AND Mononuclear monocytes-macrophages
Recognition of foreign antigen LYMPHOCYTES
Antibody-synthesizing cells PLASMA CELLS
Homeostatic regulator of inflammation EOSINOPHIL
High concentrations of heparin and histamine BASOPHIL
Principal leukocyte associated with phagocytosis NEUTROPHIL
What is the source of undifferentiated T lymphocytes? BONE MARROW
Surface markers on lymphocytes can be used to: a. identify and count CD4+ and CD8+ cells. b. classify leukemic cells. c. monitor patients on immunotherapy.
Cluster designation (CD) antigens are involved in various lymphocyte functions, which can include: a. promotion of cell to cell interactions and adhesion. b. transduction of signals that lead to lymphocyte activation.
When mature T lymphocytes leave the thymus, their T cell receptors are either CD4+ or _______. CD8+
Play a greater role in the regulation of antibody production and the release of cytokines required for B cell differentiation Helper T type 2 (Th2)
Responsible for cell-mediated effector mechanisms Helper T type 1 (Th1)
Regulatory T (Treg) Are an immunoregulatory type of helper T cells (Th cells)
80% OF T LYMPHOCYTES BLOOD
60% OF T LYMPHOCYTES LYMPH NODES
10% OF T LYMPHOCYTES BONE MARROW
Complement is characterized by all except: normally present in the circulation as an active enzyme
Functions of the complement system include: a. host defense against infection, such as chemotaxis. b. clearance of apoptotic cells. c. clearance of immune complexes from the tissues.
The classic complement pathway is activated by: factor B
The alternate complement pathway is activated by: bacterial exotoxins
The physiologic or cellular consequences of complement activation can include: a. production of inflammatory mediators. b. cytolysis or hemolysis. c. opsonization.
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is characterized by all except: the complement cascade reaches full amplitude at this stage
Increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections can be caused by: a. deficiency of the opsonic activities of complement. b. any deficiency that compromises the lytic activity of complement. c. deficient function of the mannose-binding lectin pathway.
Interferons: mediate the early immune response to viral infections.
Which of the following characteristics is representative of C-reactive protein (CRP)? a. The first acute-phase reactant to become elevated b. Nonspecific indicator of inflammation c. Acute-phase reactant
The measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used for all except: diagnosis of viral septicemia.
The definition of the term agglutination is? ALL OF THE ABOVE: a. visible expression of the aggregation of antigens and antibodies. b. formation of a framework in which antigen particles or molecules alternate with antibody molecules. c. term used to describe the aggregation of particulate test antigens.
Precipitation is the term applied to? aggregation of soluble test antigens
An artificial carrier could be: BOTH A AND B: a. latex particles. b. colloidal charcoal.
With agglutination inhibition in pregnancy testing, a negative result is evidenced by _____________________. agglutination
The first phase of agglutination represents: BOTH A AND C: a. physical attachment of antibody molecules to antigens on the erythrocytic membrane. c. a reversible chemical reaction.
The most efficient type of antibodies in agglutination reactions are _________. IgM
Anti–human globulin (AHG) is used to: form cross-links between antibodies bound to the surface of erythrocytes.
Prozone phenomenon? An excessive antibody concentration produces a false-negative reaction
Postzone phenomenon? An excessive antigen concentration results in no lattice formation