Immune system

Clare Yu
Mind Map by Clare Yu, updated more than 1 year ago
Clare Yu
Created by Clare Yu about 4 years ago
108
4

Description

Diploma/Certificado de qualificação profissional de nivel 3 public health Mind Map on Immune system, created by Clare Yu on 11/22/2015.
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Resource summary

Immune system
1 Against infections
1.1 Innate

Annotations:

  • -work within minutes after a pathogen invasion
1.1.1 Characteristics
1.1.1.1 less specificity

Annotations:

  • general, attack pathogens
1.1.1.2 Fast responses

Annotations:

  • not require time to develop
1.1.1.3 Required receptors

Annotations:

  • recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMP)
1.1.2 Mechanisms/Actions

Annotations:

  • 1. phylogenetically order 2. exist before or react immediately after contact with pathogen(no memory) 3.react predominantly to infectious agents 4.First line defense 5.stimulate and shape adaptive immunity
1.1.2.1 Phagocytosis(major)
1.1.2.2 Antigen-recognition
1.1.2.2.1 Responsible by NK cells

Annotations:

  • 1. no antigen receptors 2. have surface receptors that inhibit killing function: -Kill inhibitory receptor(KIR):recognize abnormal levels of MHC class I(normal : NK cells do not kill it ; lower amounts(usually the indicator of infected cells/tumor cells): will be killed) 
1.1.2.2.1.1 The importsnce

Annotations:

  • 1. Viral can interfere with the expression of MHC-avoid the killing by CD8+ T  cells: NK cells are important for catching these infected cells
1.1.3 Cells and functions
1.1.3.1 Mast cells

Annotations:

  • 1. inflammation
1.1.3.2 Monocytes/Macrophages

Annotations:

  • 1 Phagocytosis 2.inflammation 3.T-cell activation 4.Tissue repair
1.1.3.3 Neutrophils

Annotations:

  • 1. Phagocytosis 2. Inflammation
1.1.3.4 Neutral Killer cells

Annotations:

  • 1.Killing of infected or tumor cells(through detect the amount of MHC I) 2.Activation of Macrophages(by IFN-y)
1.1.3.5 Eosinophils

Annotations:

  • 1. Defense against parasite
1.1.3.6 Dendritic cells

Annotations:

  • 1. Phagocytosis 2. Activation of Naive T-cells
1.2 Adaptive

Annotations:

  • -take times for the responses to a specific pathogens with memory -Highly specific -it work when the innate immunity cannot control and eliminate the pathogen. -with the ability to form "memory' of the pathogen -Quickly response: the organism is infected with the same pathogen
1.2.1 Cells
1.2.1.1 B and T lymphocytes

Annotations:

  • 1. Have surface proteins(antigen receptors): recognize only one antigen 2. T cells: responsible for one small peptide 3. B cell: responsible for more than just a small peptide once the antigen binds the receptor of B cell/Tcell, they are activated and triggers an immune response.
1.2.2 Mechanism/reaction
1.2.2.1 Antigen recognition
1.2.2.1.1 The formation of recptors
1.2.2.1.1.1 combine conserved areas of receptor

Annotations:

  • with variable gene segments 1. recombining DNA 2. DNA mutation
1.2.2.1.2 Differences between T and B cell receptors

Annotations:

  • Structure: BCR:Divalent TCR: monovalent
1.2.2.1.2.1 Target antigen

Annotations:

  • B cells : antigen in native form T cells :only recognize antigen fragments with epitope size
1.2.2.1.2.2 Need assistant

Annotations:

  • B cells : does not need help from other cells to recognize antigen T cells: only recognize peptides in the presence of MHC (a surface protein)-antigen has to go through antigen processing
1.2.2.1.2.3 restriction*

Annotations:

  • T cells : MHC restricted and hiscompatible to be activated
1.2.2.1.2.3.1 MHC

Annotations:

  • -Highly variable proteins:that allow the immune system to recognize self from non-self -also know as HLA(human leukocyte antigen)(CLASS II):type individuals for BM and organs transplates -inherited one set of Class I(A,B,C) and Class II(HLA-DR,DP,DQ) from each parent(expressed equally).
1.2.2.1.2.3.1.1 Types
1.2.2.1.2.3.1.1.1 MHC class I

Annotations:

  • 1.expressed on all nucleated cells 2. responsible for graft rejection 3. MHC I must be expressed/by target cells to be killed by an antigen-specific CD8+ T cells
1.2.2.1.2.3.1.1.2 MHC class II

Annotations:

  • 1. expressed by immune cells(macrophages,dendritic cells, T cells and B cells)
2 Cells
2.1 Granular

Annotations:

  • -derived from Myeloid stem cell
2.1.1 Eosinophil
2.1.2 Basophil
2.1.3 Neutrophil

Annotations:

  • 1.contains granules 2. CD66 membrane marker protein
2.2 Agranular
2.2.1 Lymphocytes

Annotations:

  • -T cells -B cells -NK cells
2.2.1.1 T cells
2.2.1.2 B cells
2.2.1.3 Nature-killer cells

Annotations:

  • 1. used in experiment:to test the ability of lymphocytes to kill specific target cells 
2.2.2 Monocytes(Macrophage)

Annotations:

  • 1. Macrophage=Large,eating      -Lysosomes      -CD14 membrane marker protein 2.Function:-ingest and eliminate infectious agent-regulate other immune cells(both innate/adaptive)
2.2.3 Plasma cell

Annotations:

  • -differentiated from B Lymphocyte
2.2.4 Dendritic cell

Annotations:

  • 1.reside in tissue in an immature form: -mature when an infection/injury occurs 2.The role of mature DC: -travel to the lymphoid organs with antigen on their surface(antigen-presenting cells) -can present the antigen on the surface of T-cells
3 Front Line of Host Defense(Part of innate immunity)
3.1 Skin
3.1.1 Epithelia
3.1.1.1 Chemical barrier
3.1.1.2 Intraepithelial lymphocytes
3.1.1.3 Normal bacterial flora
3.1.1.4 Physical barrier
3.2 Gut
3.3 Lungs
3.4 Eyes/nose
4 Charateristics
4.1 Discriminate self & non-self
4.2 Memory

Annotations:

  • -allow the immune system to react more quickly and effectively to a stimulus that has encountered before.
4.3 Specificity

Annotations:

  • respond to the pathogen that is at hand
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