# Chapter 2 Research Methods

Flashcards by rlarellano, updated more than 1 year ago
 Created by rlarellano about 5 years ago
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### Description

Psychology research study methods

## Resource summary

 Question Answer Hindsight bias Occurs after an event and we feel we already knew what was going to happen Overconfidence Thinking too much of yourself; too much confidence Scientific Method A way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments Hypothesis An educated guess; what you think will happen Operational definitions Statement of your procedures; identifies the IV & DV, sampling & assignment Case Study In-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community Survey A method for collecting information or data as reported by individuals Naturalistic Observation A research method involving observing subjects in their natural environment Correlation A mutual relationship or connection between two or more things. Correlation COefficient Illustrates a quantitative measure of some type of correlation and dependence, meaning statistical relationships between two or more random variables or observed data values Scatterplot A visual representation of the relationships or associations between two numerical variables, which are represented as points Illusory Correlation The phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables Ethical Principles for Animal Research 1. research must have a clear, scientific purpose 2. Provide humane living conditions for animals 3. Legally obtain animals 4. Least amount of suffering Standard Deviation (Bell Curve) Shows how far scores vary from the mean (Average) score 68-95-99.7 RUle Means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean; 95% two standard deviations, 99.7% three standard deviations Normal Distribution Forms a bell-shaped or symmetrical curve (upside down U) Mode Most frequently occuring score Median Middle score Mean Average Dependent Variable What is being measured Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups randomly Cross-sectional Study Compares individuals at various ages at ONE POINT in time (One and done) Longitudinal Study Studies a single individual or group over a long period of time Zero correlation Indicates there is NO relationship between 2 variable Ex: hat size & shoe size Negative correlation -1.00 (Closest to it); means 2 variable move in opposite directions Positive correlation +1.00(Closest to it); means 2 variable move in the same direction Ex : Positive relationship between smoking & lung cancer Random selection Choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen for a sample Reliability Consistence or repeatability of results Skewed Distribution Distribution with most scores squeezed to one end, few scores stretch out like tail Surveys Descriptive method; uses questionnaires or interviews Researcher Bias Tendency for researcher to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis & ignore contradictory evidence Participant Bias Tendency for participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed Placebo Physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group, but contains no active ingredients Population All of the individuals in the group to which the study applies Quantitative Data Information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling Quasi-Experiment Measurement of DV when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible Inferential Statistics Statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions Descriptive Statistics Numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample Ethical Guidelines for Human Research 1. Informed Consent 2. Voluntary participation 3. Debriefing 4. COnfidentiality COnfounding Variables factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the IV Experiment Research method that involves manipulation of an IV under controlled conditions and measurement of its effect on a DV Experimental Group Group that you are experimenting on; receives the IV

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