Chapter 2; Research methods flashcards

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Ethical principles for animal research 1) research must have a clear scientific purpose 2) provide humane living conditions for animals 3) legally obtained animals 4) least amount of suffering
standard deviation shows how far scares vary from the mean score
68-95-99.7 rule means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean. (5% of all scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean. 99.7% of all scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean
normal distribution forms a bell shaped or symmetrical curve
mode most frequently occuring score
median the middle score
mean the average, sum of a set of scores
operational definitions statement of your procedures
dependent variable what is being measured in an experiment
random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
cross sectional study compares individuals at various ages at one point in time
longitudinal study studies a single individual or a group over an extended period of time
negative correlation -1.00 (closest to it), means 2 variables move in opposite directions
zero correlation indicates there is no relationship between two variables
positive correlation +1.00 (closest to it)
correlation coefficient. number value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
correlation studies researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables
participant bias tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed
researcher bias tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis and ignore contradictory evidence
surveys descriptive method
skewed distribution most scores squeezed to one end, few scores stretch out like tail.
reliability consistency or repeatability of results
random selection choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen for a sample
random assignment division of the sample in an experiment into groups so that every individual has an equal chance of being put in any group or condition
quasi-experiment measurement of DV when random assignment to groups of a randomly slected sample is not possible
quantitative data information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling
population all of the individuals in the group to which the study applies
placebo physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group
normal distribution represented by a normal curve- symmetric with mean, mode, and median the same score
naturalistic observations observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation
inferential statistics statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions
hypothesis prediction of how two or more factors are likely to be related
experimental group group that you experiment on
experiment research method that involves manipulation of an independent variable under controlled conditions
ethical guidelines for human research 1) informed consent 2) voluntary participation 3) debriefing 4) confidentiality
descriptive statistics numbers that summarize a set or research date from a sample
confounding variables factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable.
central tendency describes average of a distribution
case studies research technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
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