Created by Frankie Kellam
over 5 years ago


Question  Answer 
Ethical Principles for Animal Research  1. Research must have a clear, scientific purpose 2. Provide humane living conditions for animals 
Standard Deviation  Shows how far scores vary from the mean score 
689599.7 Rule  means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean: Approx. 95% of all scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean; 99.7% of all scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean 
Normal Distribution  Forms a bell shaped or symmetrical curve (upside down U) 
Mode  The most frequently occurring score 
Median  The middle score; score that divides a frequency distribution exactly in half; so that the same number of scores lie on each side of it 
Mean  the average; sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores 
Operational Definitions  Statement of your procedures; identifies the IV and DV, sampling and assignment 
Dependent Variable  what is being measured in an experiment the research variable that "depends" on the independent variable 
Random Assignment  Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance 
Crosssectional study  compares individuals at various ages at ONE POINT in time. (one and done) 
Longitudinal Study  studies a single individual or a group over an extended period of time. Provide in depth information but can be expensive & time consuming 
Zero correlation  Indicates there is NO relationship between 2 variables Ex. hat size & shoe size 
Negative Correlation  1.00 (closest to it): means 2 variables move in opposite directions 
Positive Correlation  +1.00 (closest to it): means 2 variables move in the same direction. Ex. Positive relationship between smoking and lung cancer 
Correlation coefficent  a number value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables 
Correlation Studies  researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables 
Participant Bias  tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed 
Researcher bias  tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis & ignore contradictory evidence 
Surveys  descriptive method; uses questionnaires or interviews 
Skewed Distribution  Distribution with most scores squeezed to one end, few scores stretch out like a tail. Skew named for direction of tail. Negatively skewedskewed to left. Positively skewedskewed to right. Mean pulled in direction of tail away from median; median measures centrality best. 
Reliability  Consistency or repeatability of results. Split halves reliability compares scores on one half to the other half. Test retest reliability compares scores by different scorers of the same tests. 
Random Selection  Choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen for a sample 
Random Assignment  Division of the sample in an experiment into groups so that every individual has an equal chance of being put in any group or condition. Is not possible for studies dealing with differences between sexes or age groups 
QuasiExperiment  Measurement of DV ( dependent variable) when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible. Often applies to studies involving sex or age of participants. Can suggest cause and effect 
Quantitative Data  Information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling. Nominal scale uses numbers to name something, can be used to count cases. Ordinal scale can be ranked, ordered. Numbers cannot be averaged 
Population  All of the individuals in the group to which the study applies. A sample is a subgroup of the population that participants in the study 
Placebo  Physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group, but contains no active ingredients. Placebo effectresponse to belief that the IV will have an effect, rather than the actual effect of the IV 
Normal Distribution  Represented by a normal curve (upside down U shape)symmetric with mean, mode, and median the same score; 2 sides are mirror images. Represents data about how most humans traits are distributed through population. Examples: SAT, IQ 
Naturalistic Observations  observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation. 
Inferential Statistics  Statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions. Uses rules to evaluate probability that a correlation of difference between groups reflects a real relationship, not just chance (p)is the measure of real difference, p< .05 or p< .01 needed 
Hypothesis  Prediction of how 2 or more factors are likely to be related 
Experimental Group  Group that you experimenting on, receives the independent variables 
Experiment  Research method that involves manipulation of an independent variable under controlled conditions and measurement of its effects on a dependent variable. Only method that can establish cause and effect between IV and DV 
Ethical guidelines for Human Research  10 informed consent 2) Voluntary participation 3)Debriefing 4)Confidentiality 
Descriptive Statistics  Numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample. Can be pictured as histogram or frequncy polygon 
Confounding Variables  Facotrs that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable. Example: Experimenter bias (also called expectancy effect) occurs when a researcher's expectations about the outcome of a study influence the results 
Central Tendency  Describes average of a distribution. Median is middle score when data is ordered by size. Mean is arithmetic average of scores. Mode is most frequent score, bimodal distribution has 2 most frequent scores, multimodal distribution has 3 or more 
Case Studies  research technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles EX Phineas Gage 