Case Studies

Research technique in which one person is studied in depth (ex. Phineas Gage)

Central Tendency

Describes average of a distribution (mean, median, and mode)

Confounding Variables

Factors that cause differences between the experimental group, and the control group (ex. Experimenter bias)

Descriptive Statistics

Numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample

Ethical guidelines for Human Research

1. Informed Consent
2. Voluntary Participation
3. Debriefing
4. Confidentiality

Experiment

Research method that involves manipulation of its effects on a IV and DV *only method that can establish cause and effect between IV & DV*

Experimental Group

Group that receives the IV

Hypothesis

Educated guess

Inferential Statistics

Statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions

Naturalistic Observations

Observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation

Normal Distribution

Forms a bellshaped or symmetrical curve (upside down U)

Placebo

"Fake" treatment

Population

All of the individuals in the group to which the study applies

Quantitative Data

Quantitative data are more numerical type of data that can manipulated and presented in graph form

QuasiExperiment

Measurement of DV when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible.

Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance

Random Selection

Choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being choose for a sample

Reliability

Consistency or repeatability of results

Skewed Distribution

Distribution with most scores squeezed to one end (negatively skewedskewed to the left, positively skewed skewed to the right)

Surveys

Descriptive Method, uses questionnaires or interviews

Researcher bias

tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis & ignore contradictory evidence

Participant bias

tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed

Correlation Studies

researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables

Correlation coefficient

a number value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables

Positive Correlation

2 variables move in the same direction

Negative Correlation

2 variables move in the opposite direction

Zero Correlation

indicates there is NO relationship between two variables

Longitudinal Study

studies a single individual or group over an extended period of time.

Crosssectional study

compares individuals at various ages at *ONE POINT* in time

Dependent variable

what is being measured in an experiment; the research that "depends" on the IV

Operational Definitions

statement of your procedures, identifies the IV & DV, sampling and assignment

689599.7 Rule

means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean; 99.7% of all scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean

Standard deviation

shows how far scores vary from the mean score

Mean

average

Median

the middle score

Mode

the most frequently occurring score

Ethical Principles for Animal Research

1. Research must have a clear, scientific purpose
2. Provide humane living conditions for animals
3. Legally obtain animals
4. Least amount of suffering
