Chapter 2 Psych Vocab

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Chapter 2: Research Methods Flashcards

Created by cablanks almost 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Case Studies Research technique in which one person is studied in depth (ex. Phineas Gage)
Central Tendency Describes average of a distribution (mean, median, and mode)
Confounding Variables Factors that cause differences between the experimental group, and the control group (ex. Experimenter bias)
Descriptive Statistics Numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample
Ethical guidelines for Human Research 1. Informed Consent 2. Voluntary Participation 3. Debriefing 4. Confidentiality
Experiment Research method that involves manipulation of its effects on a IV and DV *only method that can establish cause and effect between IV & DV*
Experimental Group Group that receives the IV
Hypothesis Educated guess
Inferential Statistics Statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Naturalistic Observations Observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situations w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation
Normal Distribution Forms a bell-shaped or symmetrical curve (upside down U)
Placebo "Fake" treatment
Population All of the individuals in the group to which the study applies
Quantitative Data Quantitative data are more numerical type of data that can manipulated and presented in graph form
Quasi-Experiment Measurement of DV when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible.
Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
Random Selection Choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being choose for a sample
Reliability Consistency or repeatability of results
Skewed Distribution Distribution with most scores squeezed to one end (negatively skewed-skewed to the left, positively skewed- skewed to the right)
Surveys Descriptive Method, uses questionnaires or interviews
Researcher bias tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis & ignore contradictory evidence
Participant bias tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed
Correlation Studies researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables
Correlation coefficient a number value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
Positive Correlation 2 variables move in the same direction
Negative Correlation 2 variables move in the opposite direction
Zero Correlation indicates there is NO relationship between two variables
Longitudinal Study studies a single individual or group over an extended period of time.
Cross-sectional study compares individuals at various ages at *ONE POINT* in time
Dependent variable what is being measured in an experiment; the research that "depends" on the IV
Operational Definitions statement of your procedures, identifies the IV & DV, sampling and assignment
68-95-99.7 Rule means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean; 99.7% of all scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean
Standard deviation shows how far scores vary from the mean score
Mean average
Median the middle score
Mode the most frequently occurring score
Ethical Principles for Animal Research 1. Research must have a clear, scientific purpose 2. Provide humane living conditions for animals 3. Legally obtain animals 4. Least amount of suffering