research methods key words

Truely Costen
Flashcards by Truely Costen, updated more than 1 year ago
Truely Costen
Created by Truely Costen over 5 years ago


AS - Level Sociology (research methods) Flashcards on research methods key words, created by Truely Costen on 02/18/2016.

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Question Answer
control groups a group which is compared to the experimental group. the control groups is not exposed to the variables under investigation. they are used to measure changes in the experimental group
cluster sample a target population is taken from a large geographical area and then divided into smaller and smaller groups. this is done to gain a wide representativeness
closed questions number of options
covert participants don't know they're being studied
dependant variable measured and used to see what the change in the experiment is.
extraneous variable the researcher has no control over these and the affect they have on the experiment
experiment a test carried out in controlled conditions to establish a cause- and- effect relationship between two or more variables
experimental group exposed to the variable under investigation
field experiment takes place outside of the lab and occurs in a natural setting
generalisations if the sample is representative then the findings of the experiment can be said to be true of the wider population
independent variable variables that are manipulated and changed
interpretivism focus on how we construct our social worlds through the meanings we create and attach to events. they favour qualitative methods
informed consent where those taking part have agreed to part and understand the study in detail
laboratory experiment a scientific method preferred by positivists. happens in a controlled area where researcher tests a hypothesis
objective absence of bias or preconceived ideas
open questions the respondent can answer however they like
overt participants are aware they're being studied
postal questionnaire a questionnaire which comes through the post and respondents answer without aid from the researcher.
participant observation interacts with the group being observed
quantitative information in numerical form
quota sample selecting from quotas- defined proportion of the population
qualitative information expressed through words
questionnaire list of questions
reliable produces the same results when repeated
right to withdraw the participant can say they don't want to take part in the experiment any longer and be removed
random sample respondents have an equal chance of being picked from the sample frame
representative typical; a cross section. If a sample is representative those in it will be typical of a larger group
selective bias the researcher chooses the participant
stratified sample when the population is large and the sample is small. the sample is made by drawing from each group according to their proportions in the population
sample frame a list of members of the total population of interest
sample a smaller group selected from the larger survey population to take part in a study
snowball sample starts with a small group of respondents who are asked for further contacts
structured interview the researcher asks a set of questions to the respondents and records an answer
variable a factor that can change and vary
validity data that gives a true picture of what is being studied
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