Chapter 9 Psych. Flashcards

Flashcards by cablanks, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by cablanks about 5 years ago


Chapter 9 Psych. Flascards

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Question Answer
1. Developmental Psychologist Developmental psychologists study and research how humans mature throughout their lives
2. Nature vs. Nurture What makes us who we are and drives how we behave, our genes (nature) or our experiences (nurture)
3. Cross-sectional research A type of study in which people of different ages are examined at the same time(s)
4. Longitudinal Study When people are studied, and restudied over a period of time.
5. Zygote, embryo, fetus Zygote: What a female egg is classified as after it becomes fertilized Embryo: An organism in the early, prenatal stage from about 2 weeks to 2 months after fertilization is an embryo Fetus: the longest stage of prenatal, human development that lasts from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
6. Teratogens Toxic substances that can harm the fetus (ex. drugs, alcohol, nicotine, viruses, etc.)
7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) A set of physical and mental birth defects that can result from a woman drinking alcohol during her pregnancy
8. Rooting Reflex A baby's tendency to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek
9. Moro Reflex Activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed. The arms of the infant are thrust outward, and then appear to grasp onto something
10. Babinski Reflex An infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot.
11. Harry Harlow's attachment research Baby monkeys were separated from their mothers given two surrogate mothers - one made out of wire, and another made of terry cloth
12. Contact Comfort The physical and emotional comfort that an infant receives from being in physical contact with its mother
13. Konrad Lorenz & imprinting Konrad Lorenz was an Austrian scientist; imprinting is when certain birds and mammals form attachments during a critical period very early in their lives.
14. Critical Period A specific time during which an organism has to experience stimuli in order to progress through developmental stages properly
15. Mary Ainsworth/ "Strange Situation" She put a baby in an unfamiliar room (for a little while with her mother, and then with a stranger) to see how to baby would react in both situations
16. Secure Attachments An emotional bond between children and caregivers
17. Avoidant attachments a type of childhood insecure attachment style
18. Anxious/ambivalent attachments a type of childhood insecure attachment style
19. Authoritarian (parenting style) Sets rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, rarely listens to child. Child of this type of parent tends to be moody, aggressive, and often lack good communication skills
20. Permissive (parenting style) Sets rules, but allow their kids to make their own decisions, *children of this type of parent tend to be impulsive, immature, and often fail to respect others
21. Authoritative (parenting style) Sets firm rules, makes reasonable demands, children of this type of parent tend to be well-adjusted, goal-oriented, and socially competent
22. Sigmund Freud He is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis
23. Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 4 Stages "Learning Formula" Small People Can Formulate 1. Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs) 2. Preoperational (2-7 yrs) 3. Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs) 4. Formal Operational (11+ yrs)
24. Schema A mental concept that informs a person about what to expect from a variety of experiences and situations
25. Assimilation Process of absorbing new information from existing schemas
26. Accomodation Happens when children change their old schema, or develop new a one to incorporate new information.
27. Sensorimotor Stage According to Jean Piaget, from birth to approximately age 2 learn to coordinate all their sensory experiences (sights, sounds, etc.) with their motor behaviors
28. Object Permanence A developmental term that refers to a child's ability to understand that objects still exist after they are no longer in sight
29. Preoperational Stage When children believe that inanimate objects have feeling
30. Egocentric An inability on the part of a child in the preoperational stage of development to see any point of view other than their own
31. Animism The belief that objects that are inanimate (not living) have feelings, thoughts, and have the mental characteristics and qualities of living things
32. Concrete Operations From about 7 to 12 years of age; children gain the abilities and mental operations that allow them to think logically about concrete events such as mathematical operations and principles, and conservation
33. Law of conservation A child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass (happens between ages 7 and 11).
34. Formal Operations When a person gets to be approximately age 12, they acquire the ability to think logically about abstract concepts
35. Deferred gratification- Stanford University Marshmallow experiment The ability to put off something mildly fun or pleasurable now, in order to gain something that is more fun, pleasurable, or rewarding later. Marshmallow Test: the experimenter gave four-year-old children a marshmallow and told them that they could either eat the marshmallow now, or wait fifteen minutes until the experimenter got back from doing a task and have two marshmallows.
36. Lev Vygotsky A Russian psychologist most known for his sociocultural theories on cognition
37. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) Tasks that are too difficult for a person to learn alone, but can be learned with guidance from someone with experience in the task
38. Erik Erikson's Psychological Development Theory Erikson's theory says we progress 8 stages of development from infancy to old age. At each stage, there is a crisis that has a positive or negative outcome.
39. Trust vs. Mistrust As infants, we depend on our caregivers to provide for our basic needs, and develop trust when these needs are met. Otherwise, we may grow up to be suspicious and mistrustful. (birth-1 year)
40. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt As toddlers, we become willful and curious. If we're restricted, we may develop shame and doubt. (1-3 years)
41. Initiative vs. Guilt As young children, we engage in play, interaction, and self-expression. Too much criticism can cause guilt. (3-5 years)
42. Industry vs. Inferiority At this age, we learn to read and create. Positive reinforcement will lead to industriousness. Otherwise, we may feel inferior. (5-12 years)
43. Identity vs. Role confusion As teens, we typically try to understand who we are, but this can sometimes lead to confusion. (12-18 years)
44. Intimacy vs. Isolation In adulthood, we often seek intimacy in order to avoid feeling isolated. (18-40 years)
45. Generativity vs. stagnation In middle adulthood, we focus on establishing our careers and families. If we are unsuccessful, we can feel stagnant. (40-65 years)
46. Integrity vs. Despair As older adults, we contemplate the integrity of our lives and accomplishments. If we do not feel accomplished, we may experience despair. (65+ years)
47. Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development This theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors.
48. Preconventional Stage The first level of Kohlberg's moral development taxonomy where individuals' ethical principles are guided by the consequences of the action and the benefit awarded to him or herself
49. Conventional Stage the second stage in Kohlberg's stages of development which explains the development of moral judgment and ethical reasoning in individuals
50. Postconventional Stage The third and final level of Kohlberg's moral development taxonomy where individuals enter the highest level of morale development
51. Primary Sex Characteristics body structures that are specific to sex (females=ovaries; males=testes)
52. Secondary Sex Characteristics Physical features other than reproductive organs that distinguish men from women.
53. Menarche A female's first menstrual cycle
54. Menopause A natural change in a woman's menstrual cycle that occurs as she gets older (usually once a woman reaches her 50s).
55. Social Clock A cultural specific timetable for events to occur (events include marriage, having children, etc).
56. Crystallized Intelligence The amount of information you obtain and the verbal skills you develop over time.
57. Fluid Intelligence Your ability to reason in an abstract way
58. Elizabeth Kubler Ross Stages of Grieving (Giraffe video) Lists the five emotional stages that a person potentially goes through when facing impending death or other catastrophic or life-changing experience
59. Irreversibility A child's inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events Ex. A child gets upset when their favorite ball gets flat.
60. Criticism of Piaget's theory? 1. Piaget underestimated the age at which children meet these milestones. 2. Lev Vygotsky criticized Piaget for not taking in account cultural & social factors
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