Development

Sarah Baldwin
Flashcards by Sarah Baldwin, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah Baldwin
Created by Sarah Baldwin about 5 years ago
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Developmental section of AP Psychology words

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Question Answer
Developmental Psychologist studies physical, cognitive, and social changes of humans throughout their life cycle
Nature vs. Nurture what makes us who we are and drives how we behave, our genes (nature) or our experiences (nurture)?
Cross-Sectional Research one type of research in which people of different ages are examined at the same time(s)
Longitudinal Research people are studied and restudied over a period of time
Zygote when a human female egg is fertilized
Embryo early, prenatal stage from about 2 weeks to 2 months after fertilization
Fetus the longest stage of prenatal, human development that lasts from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Teratogens anything that can disrupt the development of an embryo or fetus in a pregnant mother's womb; may cause a birth defect, malformation, or terminate the pregnancy altogether
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) physical, cognitive, and psychological abnormalities that result from consuming alcohol during pregnancy
Rooting Reflex a tendency for an infant, when stroked on the side of the face, to move its face in the direction being stroked, open its mouth, and search for a nipple
Moro Reflex a normal reflex for an infant when he or she is startled or feels like they are falling; the infant will have a "startled" look and the arms will fling out sideways with the palms up and the thumbs flexed
Babinski Reflex a physical reflex shown when the bottom of the foot is stimulated by a blunt instrument; also known as the Plantar Reflex
Harry Harlow's Attachment Research contact comfort: a monkey would rather be with a soft loving mother rather than a wire one, even if the wire one provides food
Contact Comfort the physical and emotional comfort that an infant receives from being in physical contact with its mother
Konrad Lorenz best remembered for his study of imprinting in birds (the tendency of birds to identify the first being seen after birth as their "mother")
Critical Period a specific time during which an organism has to experience stimuli in order to progress through developmental stages properly
Mary Ainsworth researched attachment with her experiment "the strange situation"; multiple types of attachment, mainly secure and insecure
Secure Attachments children with secure attachments show minimal distress when their mother left them alone and sought comfort when their mother returned
Avoidant Attachments do not orientate to their attachment figure while investigating the environment; very independent of the attachment figure both physically and emotionally
Anxious/Ambivalent Attachments a child with this type of insecure attachment tends to ignore the caregiver, sometimes almost completely
Authoritarian Parenting Style allows for little discussion or explanation of the firm controls placed on the child; a restrictive style that emphasizes respect for work and effort
Permissive Parenting Style characterized by having few and inconsistent rules and a relaxed attitude to parenting that is more like a friend than a parent
Authoritative Parenting Style parents closely interact with their children, while maintaining high expectations for behavior and performance, as well as a firm adherence to schedules and discipline
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Four stages: 1) Sensorimotor (0-2 years) 2) Preoperational (2-7 years) 3) Concrete Operational (7-11 years) 4) Formal Operational (11+ years)
Object Permanence understanding that objects, people, etc. continue to exist even when they cannot be seen; babies understand this at about 4 to 6 months of age
Schema a framework that organizes and interprets information
Assimilation process of absorbing new information into an existing schema (ex: a child thinks that all four-legged animals are dogs)
Accommodation happens when children adjust, change, or develop their schema to incorporate new information (ex: a child knows the difference between a cat and a dog)
Animistic Thinking preoperational stage; children believe that inanimate objects have feelings and are real (ex: personification)
Egocentrism preoperational stage; children assume that others think and feel the same as they do, and are not able to understand other perspectives
Irreversibility preoperational stage; child's inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events (ex: child flattens a ball of playdoh and doesn't realize that it can be reformed)
Law of Conservation concrete operational stage; a child does not understand that something stays the same even after its appearance changes
What are some criticisms of Piaget's theory? 1) underestimated the age at which children reach these milestones 2) Lev Vygotsky criticized that Piaget did not take into account cultural and social influences on development
Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development states that we progress through eight different stages of development from infancy to old age; each stage has a crisis with a positive or negative outcome
Stage 1) Trust vs. Mistrust (age 0-1 years) if mother is loving and nurturing, infant will develop a sense of trust; if not, the infant will not trust people
Elizabeth Kubler Ross's Stages of Death/Grief 1) Denial 2) Anger 3) Bargaining 4) Depression 5) Acceptance
Stage 2) Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
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