Ch. 5 Stages of Consciousness Vocabulary

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AP Psychology Vocab

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Subconscious Below conscious awareness; sleeping & dreaming
Circadian Rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
REM Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep aka "paradoxical sleep" A period of sleep when dreaming takes place, characterized by rapid periodic twitching movements of the eye muscles and other physiological changes, such as accelerated respiration and heart rate, increased brain activity, and muscle relaxation.
NREM Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep sleep stages I-IV associated with slowing brain activity
Alpha waves A pattern of smooth, regular electrical oscillations in the human brain that occur when a person is awake and relaxed.
Sleep spindles occurs during Stage 2; short bursts of rapid, high amplitude brain waves.
Theories of sleep: a. Restoration theory of sleep- sleep rejuvenates the mind and the body. REM sleep restores mental and brain functions, while NREM sleep restores key physical functions. b. Adaptive theory of sleep- evolutionary psychologists argue that sleep patterns evolved so that humans could conserve energy and avoid predators. c. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic view- according to Sigmund Freud dreams provide insights into the unconscious motives by expressing hidden desires and conflicts. d. Manifest content- The content of a dream, fantasy, or thought as it is remembered and reported in psychoanalysis. e. Latent content- the hidden meaning of a fantasy or dream, discoverable by analysis of the content of the dream. f. Activation-synthesis theory- dreams are a random event caused by firing of neurons in the brain. The brain synthesizes these spontaneous signals into coherent patterns or dreams. g. Information Processing theory- Proposed in 1993, theory states that dreams allow people to review and address problems they faced during waking life.
Insomnia inability to obtain sufficient sleep, especially when chronic; difficulty in falling or staying asleep; sleeplessness.
Narcolepsy a condition characterized by frequent and uncontrollable periods of deep sleep.
Sleep apnea a temporary suspension of breathing, occurring in some newborns (infant apnea) and in some adults during sleep (sleep apnea)
Night terrors feelings of great fear experienced on suddenly waking in the night.
REM rebound is the lengthening and increasing frequency and depth of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which occurs after periods of sleep deprivation.
Hypnosis an artificially induced trance state resembling sleep, characterized by heightened susceptibility to suggestion.
Ernest Hilgard & "the Hidden Observer" Hilgard conducted an experiment with hypnotized subjects who showed no sign of pain when they were submerged their arms in an ice bath, but when asked to raise their index finger if they felt pain, 70% did. He theorized that hypnosis induces a special state of dissociation (divided consciousness) that enabled the hypnotized subjects to consciously respond to the hypnotist's suggestion that the cold water is not painful.
Psychoactive drugs or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.
Agonistic drugs Enhance a neurotransmitter's effect
Antagonistic drugs Inhibit a neurotransmitters effect
Withdrawal the action of withdrawing something.
Tolerance the ability or willingness to tolerate something, in particular the existence of opinions or behavior that one does not necessarily agree with.
Depressants a chemical substance (such as a drug) that makes a body's systems less active
Stimulants a substance that raises levels of physiological or nervous activity in the body
Opiates depress neural functioning; numb the senses and relieves pain, Ex. Morphine, her
Hallucinogens a drug that causes hallucinations, such as LSD.
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