Unit 2 Living things and the environment

Mariana r
Flashcards by Mariana r, updated more than 1 year ago
Mariana r
Created by Mariana r about 5 years ago
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International Baccalaureate Science (Unit 2) Flashcards on Unit 2 Living things and the environment, created by Mariana r on 03/30/2016.

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Question Answer
Living things are made of cells Organisms are made up of one or more cells.
Living things need energy Living things use energy to maintain the cellular processes functioning (to move things around, reproduce, digest nutrients, build more cells, communicate, etc)
Living things react to stimuli Living things can react to internal and external stimuli. Examples: plants growing in the direction of the Sun, sweating, sperm cell finding the egg, iguanas looking for shade in a sunny day, your breathing rate increasing when you exercise.
Living things grow, develop and die All living things go through a life cycle Unicellular organisms grow until the cell divides into two new cells. Multicellular organisms increase their number of cells. These cells can differentiate and specialize. Eventually, living things die
Living things reproduce Living things can produce other living things. There are two basic kinds of reproduction: Sexual reproduction: involve gametes (e.g. sperm cells and eggs). The organism produced is a mixture of two different individuals. This is how mammals reproduce. Asexual reproduction: individuals can, sometimes, make copies of themselves on their own. This is how many bacteria reproduce.
What you think living things need to survive? Water Shelter Stable environment Oxygen (most) Light (many) Nutrients: minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids Protection against UV rays
Ecology The study of living organisms in the natural environment, how they interact with one another and how they interact with their nonliving environment
Species A group of organisms that can reproduce and produce fully fertile offspring
Population A group of organisms of the same species which live in the same habitat at the same time where they can freely interbreed Habitat = place in which an organism lives
Community All the populations of the different species living and interacting in the same environment
Ecosystem All the living things (biotic factors) and non-living things (abiotic factors) interacting in an environment Example of biotic factors: living things (animals, plants, microorganisms, etc) Examples of abiotic factors: non-living things like water, temperature, soil, light, air...
Autotroph Producer = organism that makes its own food (plants, algae)
Heterotroph organism that gets food from the environment (animals, fungi)
Decomposers organism that eats dead organic matter (bacteria, fungi, vultures, earthworms)
Consumers can be: Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores
Food Chains/Food Webs A food chain represents the flow of energy from the sun to autotrophs to heterotrophs
Let’s classify the organisms into: Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Quaternary consumers
MUTUALISM: Both species benefit (+/+)
PARASITISM: One species benefits at the expense of another (+/-) Host (-)/Parasite (+)
COMMENSALISM: One species benefits, other is unaffected (+/0)
PREDATION: One species benefits at the expense of another (+/-) Predator (+) / Prey (-)
How are organisms classified? 2 Latin names Homo sapiens Homo = genus Homo sapiens = species Genus= initial capital letter Specific name = lower case Always italic
Hierarchy KINGDOM PHYLUM (PHYLA - plural) CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES
Domains 3 domains: Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya
Kingdoms 6 kingdoms Eubacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Animalia Plantae
Invertebrates no backbone Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Roundworms Mollusks Annelida Arthropods Echinoderms
Vertebrates: with backbone Fish Amphibian Reptiles Birds Mammals
Porifera Sponges Pores Filter water Asymmetrical Do not move Eat plankton
Cnidaria Jellyfish, anemones, coral Stinging cells in tentacles Radial symmetry Eat: small and large organisms like fish
Platyhelminthes Tapeworm, planaria, marine flatworms Bilateral symmetry predators/some parasites: steal food from host No circulatory system Segmented
Roundworms Ascaris Bilateral symmetry Mostly parasites Slender, not segmented
Annelids Earthworms, Leeches Terrestrial, marine, parasites “Rings” – segmented body Bilateral symmetry
Mollusks Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squid, Octopus Soft body Shell Bilateral symmetry Primitive brain
Arthropods Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, spiders, mites, scorpions, centipedes, insects Articulated legs Hard exoskeleton Segmented body Shed exoskeleton in order to grow Bilateral symmetry
Echinoderms Sea urchin, sea cucumber, sand dollar, starfish Marine Radial symmetry
Cold-blooded animals Ectothermic
Warm-blooded Endothermic
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