Bio 366 Invertebrates

j.amitaf
Flashcards by j.amitaf, updated more than 1 year ago
j.amitaf
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What are the 3 tagmanta of anthropods? head thorax abdomen
ametabolous offspring gradually assume adult characters through a series of moults no metamorphosis – primitive (wingless species)
hemimetabolous adult form is attained by a series of moults and metamorphosis is incomplete – partial metamorphosis – all immature stages are called nymphs – nymphs resemble adults except that wings and genitalia are acquired at the final moult
holometabolous distinct metamorphosis with well defined larval and adult stages – full metamorphosis more advanced
Arthropoda • large phylum – insects, arachnids, crustaceans and many other smaller groups
Coleoptera beetles 300,000 species
Hymenoptera bees, wasps, ants 100,000 species
Lepidoptera butterflies and moths 110,000 species
Diptera flies 100,000 species
trehalose antifreeze produced by Morulina mackenziana
Q: How do you sample collembolas? A: with a pooter
The Arctic is tough for insects because • short growing season • low humidity • low precipitation • low incident radiation • poor quality soils • low primary productivity • most important factor is the year-round low mean temperatures – limits development and reproduction – threatens survival in winter
Why are arthropods important? • roles – scavengers, decomposers, pollinators, herbivores, predators, parasitoids, nutrient cycling, litter decomposition, soil structure • food for wildlife • vectors of disease • plant pollination • wildlife impacts • economic importance
Why are arthropods so successful? • colonization predates the chordates • flight • small size • body structure • metamorphosis • high birthrate, low generation time • life history traits
chionophobe do not inhabit snowy regions year-round, but migrate to warmer climates
• chioneuphore withstand winters with considerable snowfall
• chionophiles inhabit regions with long, cold, snowy winters and exhibit special adaptations
poikilothermy body temperature is variable and dependent on ambient temperature (arthropods)
northern insects are cold-adapted metabolic rate is higher at a given temperature than in related forms from warmer regions
stoneflies (Nemoura columbiana) can emerge from an ice-covered stream and mate in the air space beneath the ice and snow cover at an air temperature of 0°C without incident radiation
Chernov’s lifecycle categories : • Active adaptation for rapid development and able to pass winter in only one stage (e.g., social bees, orb-web spiders)
Chernov’s lifecycle categories : passive adaptation whereby a particular lifecycle stage is extended for several years and able to pass the winter in many stages (e.g., lymantriid moths)
Dormancy development from egg to adult is interrupted
quiescence halted or slowed development as a result of unfavorable conditions
diapause “metabolic shutdown”, or arrested development combined with adaptive physiological changes
Voltinism # generations/year
semivoltine >1 year/cycle
univoltine 1 year/cycle
bivoltine 2 cycles/year
multivoltine >2 cycles/year
Directly Induced Development (DID) development is a function of temperature: • NOT dependent on anticipatory cues
Cue Induced Development (CID) – diapause occurs in response to some type of cue, which precedes the onset of unfavorable conditions (e.g., photoperiod)
cold-hardiness the ability of an organism to survive at low temperatures
cold-acclimation the seasonal increase in coldhardiness that occurs in most northern species from summer to winter to prevent cryoinjury
Freezing Avoidance – insects keep their body fluids liquid below their ordinary melting point (supercooling) unable to survive formation of ice in body tissues and fluids
Freezing Tolerance strategy for species that tolerate formation of ice in body tissues and fluids; generally only extracellular freezing is tolerated
Cryoprotective dehydration – depress melting point by keeping their body fluids in vapour pressure equilibrium with the surrounding ice – held above ice nucleation temperature for a sufficient time, or are cooled slowly, enough water is lost to prevent freezing (cryoprotective dehydration)
Freezing tolerance freezing is initiated by ice nucleators in the haemolymph or gut • polyols and sugars protect membranes and proteins against phase transitions and control the ice fraction size and minimum cell volume
Freeze tolerance compounds Cryoprotectants Thermal Hysteresis Proteins (THP) Ice Nucleating Agents (INA)
Cryoprotectants – polyols and carbohydrates (e.g., glycerol) associated with membrane protection and repair at freezing temperatures
Thermal Hysteresis Proteins (THP) – freezing of hemolymph (insect blood) is depressed relative to melting point – proteins bind to ice crystals to slow growth
Ice Nucleating Agents (INA) molecules or particles that induce ice formation in extracellular fluid a few degrees below zero • minimizes intracellular freezing
Summer months – evaporative cooling (regurgitated fluid) • high temperatures honeybees repeatedly regurgitate a droplet of fluid and suck it back in
Winter months – anaerobiosis (anoxia) • life sustained in the absence of oxygen – drought resistance
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