B1e: Drugs and you

Carina C
Flashcards by Carina C, updated more than 1 year ago
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GCSE Biology (Module B1: Understanding Organisms) Flashcards on B1e: Drugs and you, created by Carina C on 04/04/2016.

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Question Answer
What are drugs? Drugs are substances that alter the way the body works. Some are beneficial, while others are harmful.
Why are some drugs only available by prescription? Some drugs are only available by prescription as it may be dangerous if misused.
Define 'addiction'. Addiction - physical need for drug
Define 'withdrawal symptoms'. Withdrawal symptoms - symptoms that show when you are unable to obtain the drug you are addicted to
Define 'tolerance'. Tolerance - when the body gets used to the drug and requires are higher dose of it
Define 'rehabilitation'. Rehabilitation - where you get help and support to try and overcome an addiction
State the main types of drugs and an example for each. Explain their effects on the body. 0ed19a74-082a-47b1-9f7a-97edba04b3cd.JPG (image/JPG)
How are drugs classified? In the UK drugs are mainly classified into 3 categories- Classes A, B and C. Which class a drug is in depends on how dangerous it is - Class A drugs are the most dangerous.
Give 2 examples of the drugs you would find in each class. CLASS A drugs include heroin, LSD, ecstasy and cocaine. CLASS B drugs include cannabis and amphetamines. CLASS C drugs include anabolic steroids and tranquillisers.
What happens when you are caught dealing or using Class A drugs? Using or dealing with Class A drugs is the most serious - you could get a lengthy prison sentence.
What happens when you are caught dealing or using Class C drugs? Being caught using or dealing with Class C drugs will probably only get you a warning, although prison is still a possibility.
What results in a greater punishment: supplying or using drugs? In all cases, supplying drugs to others usually results in greater punishment than using it yourself.
How do stimulants affect the nervous system? Stimulants cause more neurotransmitter molecules to diffuse across the synapse.
How do depressants affect the nervous system? Depressants bind to the receptor molecules so that fewer neurotransmitter molecules are able to reach the second neuron.
What happens when you smoke? The cells lining the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles are damaged by cigarette smoke. Damaged epithelial cells cannot move to push mucus out of the lungs, leading to a build-up of mucus and a smokers’ cough. The lungs also lose their elasticity, causing emphysema.
Explain the problems smoking can cause. Addiction - Nicotine is the addictive substance in tobacco. Heart disease - Carbon monoxide reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen - putting extra strain on the circulatory system. Low birth weight babies - Pregnant women smoking reduces the amount of oxygen available to the growing fetus. Lung, throat, mouth and oesophageal cancer - Tar from cigarettes smoke collects in lungs. It is irritant and it contains carcinogens that causes cancer.
What does alcohol do to your brain? The alcohol in alcoholic drinks is called ethanol. It is a depressant. This means that it slows down signals in the nerves and brain.
Why are their legal limits to the level of alcohol that drivers and pilots can have in the body? This is because alcohol impairs the ability of people to control their vehicles properly. Breath tests and blood tests are used by the police to see if a driver is over the limit.
What are the short-term effects of alcohol? Sleepiness Impaired judgement, balance and muscle control Blurred vision Slurred speech Increased flow of blood to the skin which can cause it to become red.
What are the long-term effects of alcohol? Damage to the liver Damage to the brain due to dehydration.
How does alcohol damage the liver? The liver removes alcohol from the bloodstream. It has enzymes that break down alcohol but the products of the reactions involved are toxic. They damage the liver and over time this leads to cirrhosis.
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