The collapse of the Tsarist regime 1917

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Flashcards by hannahashahudson, updated more than 1 year ago
hannahashahudson
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Edexcel 2A History Flashcards for revision

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Question Answer
What were the problems of ruling Russia in 1917? Social inequality, size, language problems, transport problems and work
How was Russia ruled in 1917? By the Tsar who made all the desciosns who was advised by a council of nobles. Supported by the Russian Orthodox Church who believed in divine right of king, censorship of books and newspapers and the Okhrana who looked for opponents of the Tsar and exiled them.
What happened in the 1905 revolution? In 1905 a series of demonstrations/ strikes on the current situation. The Tsar's troops fired on peaceful demonstrators, killing many, producing more unrest. The St Petersberg strikes formed a soviet: a workers council to organise strikes. Work in the city stopped and soviets were organised elsewhere, they took over some of the Tsar's governments.
What did Nicholas II do to make up for the 1905 Revolution? Created a Duma who were elected by the people so they could openly discuss political issues.
But.... The Tsar didn't want to share his power so only allowed those who supported him to be elected.
What were the three main groups in 1917? Monarchists: supported the Tsar and him being advised by a few nobles Constitutionalists: wanted the Tsar's power limited by a constitution and some kind of parliament Revolutionaries: wanted an overthrow of the Tsar led by the peasants or workers... the Social Democrats led to Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
Why was Russia at a disadvantage at the start of WW1? Its size, poor transport system and insufficient industry and agriculture
What were the problems in the war in 1915? Army was huge, badly trained and under-equipped -some soldiers had no rifles. In 1915 Germans pushed the Russian army back and they lost 2mil men, large parts of four provinces including a major coal mining district. In September 1915 the Tsar took control making the situation worse and was blamed for it. He left his wife in charge of Russia, her mistakes made him more unpopular.
What were the effects of the War? Made Russia's existing problems worse: millions of peasents and trained factory workers were conscripted meaning the agriculture and industry plummeted; the army took most of the horses from farms making it hard to plough and made transport problems worse; fertiliser production collapsed; food shortages increased.
Who suffered the most because of the effects of war and why? The workers: they had no food stored and couldn't afford to buy any
What did the Soviets do in response to WW1? Took advantage of the situation; talked about revolution openly and the workers listened
How did the strikes begin in 1917? The first months of 1917 were colder than usual -too cold for trains to run- there was no bread as there was no fuel or grain and rationing was announced on the 19th of Feb for the 1st of March, some strikes/demonstrations broke out. On Feb 21st the biggest factory in Petrograd locked-out some workers setting of a strike which spread.
What happened in the week of Feb 23rd 1917? International women's day; women marched for equal rights and by the afternoon the numbers increased when women cloth workers joined and some other strikers. Overtime the police and troops couldn't stop them. The next day 150,000 marched with weapons -seizing food. The Tsar ordered the army to fire.
What happened on Feb 26th, 27th and 28th of 1917? Some of the army fired on the people, then all firing stopped. The army turned against the Tsar and joined the people, the Tsar and Duma were unprepared. The people stormed prisons releasing political prisoners and took more weapons from factories, fighting the police.
What were the problems the PG faced? Had no real power; saw itself as temporary; didn't control enough of Russia to implement ideas; some problems ie. shortages were not going to be short-term/ not easy to solve
What did the people want from the PG? To take them out of war; provide an effective government; improve conditions for workers; solve problems of shortages; re-distribute land more equally
What did the PG do about war? Nothing: thought they couldn't abandon their allies and so they sent more troops to the front but did try to spread enthusiasm -which didn't work
Why did the support for the Bolsheviks grow? Only group willing to take Russia out of the war and radical change (shown through Lenin's april thesis). Lenin's speaking power and simple slogan 'peace, bread and land'; Bolshevik newspapers which criticised the PG
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