Language - Lecture 7

Georgina Burchell
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Degree Psychology (Psychology of the Individual) Flashcards on Language - Lecture 7, created by Georgina Burchell on 04/26/2016.

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Georgina Burchell
Created by Georgina Burchell over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
Name some uses of language in humans Communication, express emotion, social interaction
Key features of language Universal, semanticity, Arbitrariness (words don't sound like they mean, its random)
Name some more universally agreed factors about language symbolic, voluntary, not limited to one modality (spoken, text etc) and systematic
What is syntax? The rules a language has for putting words together into phrases and sentences All about regularity of structure Ordering of words matters e.g., “a man bites a dog” vs “a dog bites a man”
What is a morpheme? Smallest units of language that have a definable meaning or a grammatical function, e.g. 'looming' is loom (base morpheme) and 'ing' (bound morpheme)
What is a phoneme? The shortest segment of speech sounds that we articultate
What is a grapheme? A symbol of a phoneme - letter or group of letters representing a sound
What does psycho-linguistics examine? The interaction between language and thought
What does the term grammar mean when used by linguists? Refers to the sum knowledge that someone has about the structure of their language
What is recursion? Embedding syntactic structures within structures
How did Chomsky argue that babies learnt language? Babies have innate knowledge of universal grammatical structure Biologically determined predisposition to learn language, triggered by hearing speech = Language Acquisition Device
Similarities of language acquisition accross cultures Babies show preference for mothers voice and native language All babies start to babble around 7 months 6000 word vocabulary by 5 years
Two similarities between all languages All have verbs, nouns All have a way to make things negative, ask questions, refer to past and present
What were the two significant differences between Nim, the monkey's, learning of words and a human child Vocabulary of 100's rather than 1000's of words Only produce short utterances
What is a lexicon A human adult's hypothetical store of all linguistic information (See eynsenk and keyne for models)
Name the 6 types of ambiguity in language 1499192d-16bc-4e94-a2ac-618e380215a1.jpg (image/jpg)
What is prosody? The rhythm and pattern of spoken language
What study did Ashby & Clifton (2005) conduct? Monitored eye movements when adults read sentences with one or two stressed syllables. Words with two stressed syllables took longer to read. Suggests that readers supplied phonological information during silent reading
What have studies shown influences the speed of naming words? The frequency with which the word is encountered (Naming line drawings Oldfield & Wingfield, 1965) The age at which the word was learnt (earlier = faster) ... but could this be because common words are learnt first?
What is the interactive activation model? Model with 3 levels of recognition units Top down and bottom up processing can occur Activation at all levels add's weight to the recognition of the stimulus
What is one criticism of the interactive activation model? It doesn't take into account other elements of processing such as phonological and semantic
When is a sentence interpreted? While it is being read, interpretation is immediate
What are two types of language comprehension? Deep Shallow
What study did Erickson & Mattson, 1981 carry out? Moses illusion Detection of ‘the Moses Illusion’ linked to the semantic similarity between the target and the correct item in LTM
Who asked the question ''How fast were the cars going when they smashed into/hit/collided with/bumped/contacted each other?'' Loftus and Palmer (1974) They found that memory was semantically distorted by the phrasing of the question
What does the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis state? An individual’s thoughts are affected by the language/s he or she has available to express them Strong: Language determines thought Weak: Language influences thought
Who studied number abilities in people with languages with reduced number content? b1b43b19-9121-4fcf-a511-a5f5a8bb2d39.jpg (image/jpg) Gordon, 2004 studied the Pirahã Amazonian tribe
Danai speakers who only conceptualize colour as light to dark and native English speakers were asked to group red, blue and green counters. What were the results? Heider (1972) Two populations with widely differing colour vocabularies remembered colours in very similar ways Performance = not affected by differences in colour naming
Is Gordon's 2004 study for or against the strong view of Sapir-Worf hypothesis? For - it says that the Pirahã tribe conceptualized number differently
Is Heider's 1972 study for or against the strong view of Sapir-Worf hypothesis? Against - DIfferences in language between the Danai tribe and English did not effect ability to differentiate colour
Who conducted this study? 1a207ac3-f061-487b-89c9-22b0561cd290.jpg (image/jpg) Boroditsky (2000) People rated similarity of two images Indonesians (with no tense markers) considered tense less than English speakers When tested in English Indonesian bilinguals acted like English speakers
What study did Davies (1998) carry out? Study with Russian speakers who have 3 words for the green/blue colour spectrum. Found that Russian speakers were no more likely than english to separate blue/green colour counters into 3 groups
Is Boroditsky for or against the weak view of the Sapir-Worf Hypothesis? For - Found differences between Indonesian and English speakers
Is Davies (1998) for or against the weak view of the Sapir-Worf Hypothesis? Against - No difference between English and Russian speakers
Name 3 difficulties with testing the effect of language on cognition Avoid linguistic differences in test materials Avoid eliciting linguistic responses Avoid subjectivity
What did Boroditsky, 2001 do? English and Mandarin speaking participants primed with either horizontal or vertical questions. English speakers faster after having just thought about horizontal space. Mandarin speakers faster after having just thought about vertical space.
What did Boroditsky's study tell us about how language influences thought? Mandarin speakers who learned English later in life showed a stronger vertical effect than those who learned it earlier in life. This suggests that learning a new language changes the way one thinks