Respiration: Structures and Processes

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Respiration: Structures and Processes

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Respiration - Exchange of gas between organism and environment - Basic energy source for speech
Trachea - tube of ~20 cartilaginous rings that are incomplete posteriorly for direct contact with esophagus -1st Tracheal ring = largest and connects to inferior border of cricoid cartilage - extends from larynx starting @ 6th cervical vertebra /-Bifurcates into Left and Right primary bronchi @ 5th thoracic vertebra
Bronchi - Tubes of cartilaginous rings bound by fibroelastic tissue extending from lungs upwards to trachea - Down in lungs bronchi divide into bronchioles and become less cartilaginous and more muscular. Divide repeatedly and ultimately communication w/ alveolar ducts that open into tiny air sacs
Lungs -Soft, spongy, porous, elastic, and pink -rich vascular supply - numerous air sacs - located in thoracic cavity - Right Lung = shorter/broader/bigger due to liver forcing it in upwards direction
Fact Card (Respiratory) Too much C02 in blood cells triggers medula oblongata ( in brain-stem) to fire impulses to respiratory muscles.
Fact Card (Exhalation) Duration of exhalation during speech is longer than during non-speech.
Summary Card (Respiration) Respiration, the process of breathing involving an exchange of gas between an organism and its environment, it is necessary for life and essential for speech.
Summary Card (Respiration) The framework of respiration supports the muscles necessary for respiration to take place. These muscles include 2 primary categories: thoracic muscles for inspiration and abdominal muscles for expiration
Spinal Column - 32 - 33 individual vertebrae divided into 5 segments: 1) 7 Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7) 2) 12 Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12) 3) 5 Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5) 4) 4 Sacral Vertebrae (S1-S5)fused/Adults 5) 3-4 Fused coccygeal Vertebrae (Coccyx)
Fact Card (Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae) T1-T12 = Attachment for ribs L1-L5 = large good for weight bearing
Abdominal Muscles of Expiration - latissimus dorsi -rectus abdominis - transverse abdominis -internal oblique abdominis -quadratus lumborum
Latissimus Dorsi - abdominal muscle of expiration C6-C8 - Stabilizes posterior abdominal wall for expiration
Rectus Abdominis - abdominal muscle of expiration T7-T12 - Flexes vertebral column
Transversus Abdominis - abdominal muscle of expiration T7-T12 - Compresses abdomen
Internal Oblique Abdominis -Abdominal muscle for expiration T7-T12 - Compresses abdomen -flexes and rotates trunk
Quadratus Lumnorum -abdominal muscle for expiration T12, L1-L4 - Supports abdominal compression through bilateral contraction (fixes abdominal walls)
Posterior Thoracic Muscles of Exhalation -subcostal muscle -serratus posterior inferior muscles
Subcostal Muscle -posterior thoracic muscle for exhalation - depresses thorax
Serratus Posterior Inferior Muscles - thoracic muscle for exhalation - when contracted, pull rib cage down (making space for lungs decreased)
Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration 1. Pectoralis Major 2. Pectoralis Minor 3. Serratus Anterior 4. Levator Scapulae 5. Rhomboideus Major 6. Rhomboideus Minor 7. Internal Intercostal 8. Innermost Intercostal 9. Transversus Thoracis
Pectoralis Major - Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration C4-T1 - Increases transverse dimension of rib cage through elevation of sternum
Pectoralis Minor -Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration C4-T1 -Increases transverse dimension of rib cage
Serratus Anterior - Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration C5-C7 - Elevates ribs 1-9
Levator Scapulae - Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration C3-C5 - Elevates scapular, supports neck
Rhomboideus Major & Rhomboideus Minor - Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration C5 -Stabilizes shoulder girdle
Internal Intercostal & Innermost Intercostal - Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration T2-T11 - Depresses ribs 1-11
Transversus Thoracis - Should and Upper Arm Muscles involved with Respiration T2-T6 Depresses ribs 2-6
Neck Muscles involved with Respiration 1. Sternocleidomastoid 2. Trapezius
Sternoclediomastoid - Neck Muscles involved with Respiration -Elevates the sternum (& thus indirectly, the rib cage)
Trapezius - Neck Muscles involved with Respiration - controls head and elongates neck (thus indirectly influencing respiration)
Thoracic Muscles of Inspiration 1. Diaphragm 2. Abdomen 3. Internal Intercostal Muscles 4. Serratus Posterior 5. Levator Costarum Brevis 6. Levator Costarum Longis 7. External Intercostals
Diaphragm - Thoracic Muscle of Inspiration - floor of chest cavity -thick, dome shaped muscle -separates abdomen from thorax -lungs rest upon it
Abdomen - Includes various Thoracic Muscles of Inspiration
Internal Intercostal Muscles - 11 Paired Thoracic Muscles of Inspiration - pull ribs downward to decrease diameter of thoracic cavity
External Intercostals - 11 Paired Thoracic Muscles of Inspiration T2-T11 -Elevate Rib Cage
Serratus Posterior Superior - Thoracic Muscle of Inspiration C7, T1-T4 - Elevates Rib Cage
Levator Costarum Brevis & Levator Costarum Longis - Thoracic Muscle of Inspiration T2-T12 -Elevates Rib Cage
Thoracic Cage - AKA Rib Cage/Chest - Cylindrical structure -houses and protects heart, lungs, and other organs - Composed of: ->Sternum Anteriorly -> 12 Thoracic Vertebrae Posteriorly -> 12 Pairs of Ribs connect laterally from vertebrae to individual costal cartilages
Xiphoid Process Small cartilaginous structure found posteriorly to corpus of sternum
Corpus of Sternum - long and narrow body of sternum - Cartilages of ribs 2-7 attach here
Manubrium - Uppermost segment of Sternum - Provides attachment for clavical and 1st rib
Sternum - AKA Breastbone -Located on superior, anterior thoracic wall - consists of 3 parts: 1. Manubrium 2. Corpus 3. Xiphoid Process
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