AQA GCSE Chemistry - C1

Izzy T
Flashcards by Izzy T, updated more than 1 year ago
Izzy T
Created by Izzy T almost 4 years ago
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A full revision of each topic in C1 for AQA GCSE: Fundamental ideas, Rocks and building materials, Metals and their uses, Crude oil and fuels, Products from oil, Plant oils and Our changing planet.
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Question Answer
What are the names of the three sub-atomic particles found in an atom? Protons, neutrons and electrons.
What is the relative charge of a proton? 1+
What is the relative charge of an electron? 1-
What is the relative charge of a neutron? No charge (neutral)
Which sub-atomic particle(s) make(s) up the nucleus and which orbit(s) the nucleus? Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus, electrons orbit around the nucleus.
What is the definition of an isotope? Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
What is the name of Group 1 on the Periodic Table? Alkali Metals.
What is the name of Group 2 on the Periodic Table? Alkaline Earth Metals.
What is the name of the section between Groups 2 and 3 on the Periodic Table? Transition Metals.
What is the name of Group 7 on the Periodic Table? Halogens.
What is the name of Group 8 on the Periodic Table? Noble Gases.
What can an element's group show about its properties? The number of electrons on its outer shell.
What can an element's period show about its properties? The number of shells or energy levels it has.
What is the word equation for thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate? Calcium carbonate --> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
What product is formed when calcium oxide is reacted with water? Calcium hydroxide.
what is added to calcium hydroxide to form limewater? Water.
What is the word equation for reacting limewater with carbon dioxide? Carbon hydroxide solution + carbon dioxide --> calcium carbonate + water
What is the definition of an ore? A rock containing a metal or metal compound containing enough of the metal to make it economical to extract it.
What can be said about an element that is found most often in its native form? They are very unreactive.
What is the name of a reaction where carbon is used to extract a pure metal from its oxide? Displacement.
Name the method that can be used to extract metals more reactive than carbon. Electrolysis.
Where is cast iron produced? In a blast furnace.
What is an alloy? A metal compound made by combining two or more metallic (or non-metal) elements.
What is stainless steel used to make? Cutlery, chemical reaction vessels, surgical instruments.
What properties does aluminium have? Low density and good heat/electricity conductor.
What makes aluminium more corrosion-resistant? The thin layer of aluminium oxide that forms on the surface of aluminium.
What is made using aluminium/aluminium alloys? Drinks cans, cooking foil, high voltage electricity cables, aeroplanes, rockets, bicycles, saucepans.
What is the main process used to extract aluminium from its ore? Electrolysis.
What are some of the disadvantages of using this method? It is expensive, uses up lots of energy and contributes to global warming.
What properties makes titanium suitable for use in high-performance aircraft? Its combined strength and relative low density.
What properties makes titanium suitable for use in parts of jet engines? It has a very high melting point and keeps its strength at high temperatures.
What has to be done to titanium ore before it can be displaced with sodium or magnesium? Titanium oxide has to be reacted with chlorine to make titanium chloride.
How is the sodium/magnesium produced to react with titanium? Electrolysis.
How is copper extracted from its ore by smelting? The ore is heated in air to produce crude copper, then this is used as a positive electrode in electrolysis to produce pure copper.
Name two methods used to extract copper from low grade ores. Phytomining and Bioleaching.
What is involved in the process of phytomining? Plants absorb copper ions from the soil as they grow, the plants are burned and the copper is "leached" by adding sulphuric acid, electrolysis with scrap iron is used to extract the pure copper.
What is involved in the process of bioleaching? Bacteria feed on low grade copper ores, a solution of copper ions is produced, the pure copper is extracted by electrolysis with scrap iron.
What are some useful properties of transition metals? Good conductors of heat/electricity, strong, malleable and ductile.
Name some useful properties of copper and items it is used to make because of its properties. Malleable but hard, good conductor of energy, does not react with water. Used to make pipes that carry water or wires that conduct electricity.
What was the first alloy to be made by humans and what does it consist of? Bronze: a mix of copper and tin.
What is the alloy brass made of and what is it used to make? Copper and zinc, used to make musical instruments.
Why is gold more useful as an alloy than pure? When pure, it is very soft and wears away very easily.
What is the definition of a hydrocarbon? A compound containing hydrogen and carbon only.
Which series of hydrocarbons is crude oil mostly made up of? Alkanes.
What is the general formula for any alkane? C(n)H(2n+2)
What is the name of the process used to separate crude oil into sections? Fractional distillation.
What are the names of the first six alkanes? Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane.
All alkanes are "saturated". What does this mean in terms of an alkane's chemical structure? They contain as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold and as a result the compound is made with only single bonds.
What is the relationship between the length of a compound's carbon chain and its boiling point? The shorter the carbon chain the lower the boiling point is, or the longer the carbon chain the higher the boiling point is.
What is the relationship between the length of a compound's carbon chain and its viscosity? The shorter the carbon chain the less viscous it is, or the longer the carbon chain the more viscous it is.
What is the relationship between the length of a compound's carbon chain and its flammability? The shorter the carbon chain the cleaner the flame is, or the longer the carbon chain is the dirtier the flame is.
What is the most common use for compounds in the top fraction? Fuels.
What two products are made when hydrocarbons are burned in air? Carbon dioxide and water.
What are two greenhouse gases often produced from burning fuels? Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
What products can be formed when incomplete combustion of a fuel takes place? Carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, particulates (carbon).
What problem is caused by the trapping of particulates in the upper atmosphere? Global dimming.
What can car exhausts be fitted with to remove harmful substances from the gases produced when burning fuels? A Catalytic converter.
State the word equation for the reaction of carbon monoxide with nitrogen oxides in a catalytic convertor. Carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxides --> carbon dioxide + nitrogen
What is an example of a biofuel and what it is made of? Bio-diesel: Made from plant oils. Bio-gas: Gas generated from animal waste.
What are some of the advantages of using bio-diesel? Breaks down faster if there is a spill, burns much more cleanly, as crude oil runs out it will become cheaper than petrol, production is carbon neutral, useful by-products like glycerine made.
What are some of the disadvantages of using bio-diesel? Lots of land that could be used for food is used up, habitats of endangered species could be destroyed, it can gum up engines if it gets too cold.
What crops can be used to produce ethanol for fuel? Sugar cane or sugar beet.
What is the name of the process that breaks down hydrocarbon molecules into smaller compounds? Cracking.
What is the name of the family of hydrocarbons that contain one double bond? Alkenes.
What is the general formula for any alkene? C(n) H(2n)
What are the names of the first six alkenes? Ethene, Propene, Butene, Pentene, Hexene, Heptene
What are the conditions required for cracking? High temperature, catalyst/steam.
Describe the test used to determine (un)saturation. Add bromine water - if the solution turns colourless then the compound is unsaturated, if there is no change then the compound is saturated.
What are polymers? A compound made up of a large number of similar molecules bonded together.
What is the name for the small molecules that make up polymers? Monomers.
Describe the process of polymerisation of any alkene. The double bond in each alkene molecule is broken or "opened up" and replaced by single bonds as all of the molecules join together.
What is the name of the polymer made using the alkene ethene? Polyethylene, poly(ethene) or polythene.
What is the name of the polymer made using the alkene propene? Polypropylene or poly(propene).
What can polymers be used to make? Plastic bags/bottles/, dustbins, cling-film, carpets, milk crates, ropes.
What is meant by a "designer polymer"? A polymer that has been scientifically engineered with specific properties to do a particular job.
What does a smart polymer do? A polymer that changes in response to the different environments around it.
Give the name of a shape-memory polymer that is used in dental practise and what exactly it is used in. Nitinol (made of nickel and titanium) is used in braces to straighten the shape of teeth as it warms up in the mouth.
What is the definition of a biodegradable plastic? A plastic that can be broken down by micro-organisms and will therefore rot in soil when put into landfill.
What organic compound series (homologous series) is ethanol part of? Alcohols.
What are the different ways of writing the chemical formula of ethanol? C2H5OH, C2H6O, CH3CH2OH
How is ethanol produced by fermentation? Glucose (+yeast) --> ethanol + carbon dioxide
How is ethanol produced by hydration? ethene + steam --:> ethanol
What is the name of the method used to extract plant oils using steam? Distillation.
Why is oil often used in cooking food in terms of boiling point? Vegetable oils have a much higher boiling point than water, so the food can be cooked more quickly.
What conditions are needed to harden vegetable oils? 60 degrees Celsius, nickel catalyst, reacted with hydrogen gas.
What does hydrogenation do to the chemical structure of vegetable oils? It breaks the double bonds so the compound is made of only single bonds.
What does hydrogenation do to the physical properties of vegetable oils? It increases the boiling and melting points of them, meaning they are solid at room temperature.
What is an emulsion? An even dispersion of small droplets of a substance spread through another liquid (and the first substance does not dissolve)
What does an emulsifier do? Emulsifiers stop (e.g.) oil and water from separating into layers - making sure the oil droplets are dispersed evenly through the water.
Give two examples of products that are/contain an emulsion. Ice cream, mayonnaise, cosmetics, emulsion paint.
What are the main properties of the head and tail of an emulsifier molecule? The tail is hydrophobic (water-hating) and the head is hydrophobic (water-loving).
If someone consumes vegetable fats rather than animal fats, which of their organs would benefit the most? The heart.
Name a vitamin that comes from olive oil. Vitamin E.
Name the five layers of the earth from the centre outwards. Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, atmosphere.
Which layer of the earth is the thickest and which is the thinnest? The crust is the thinnest, the mantle is the thickest.
What is the inner core made of and why is it a solid? It is made of primarily nickel and iron, and it is solid because it is under so much pressure.
What are tectonic plates and how do they move over earth's surface? Tectonic plates are sections of the crust that have broken apart, and forces created by convection currents in the mantle allow them to move over earth's surface.
What causes an earthquake to occur? Tectonic plates meeting with great force and suddenly slipping past each other.
What evidence is there (besides shape) to support the theory that the eastern coastline of South America and the west coastline of Africa were once joined together? Similar fossils found on both continents, the rocks on both have the same sequence of layers.
What was the main gas in the early earth's atmosphere? Carbon dioxide.
What is the name of the experiment that proved it was possible to make the molecules of life from gases found in the early earth's atmosphere? The Miller-Urey experiment.
Where is most of the carbon that was in the early atmosphere now stored on earth? It is "locked up" in fossil fuels and dissolved in the oceans.
Name the four main gases found in today's atmosphere and their approximate percentages. Nitrogen: 78%, Oxygen: 20%, Carbon dioxide: 0.04%, Argon: 0.9%. The rest is made of traces of other gases.
Name the three main processes that release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and the one main process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Combustion, decay and respiration release carbon dioxide, photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide.
What has happened to the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in the last 100 years and why? The amount of carbon dioxide has increased because of more burning of fossil fuels.
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