Personaliy psychology Chapter 6

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Personality Psychology: Domains of knowledge about Human Nature by R.J. Larsen/D.M. Buss MacEwan University

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Genome complete set of genes an organism possess, 20000-30000 genes located in 23 pairs, one set comes from mom/ dad in each nucleua in body,
Human Genome Project multimillion-dollar research sequencing entire human genome, DNA specific to humans
DNA includes 2 things 1) 2%of DNA is decoded protein 2) 98% that was known as genetic junk is what controls everything being expressed in a person - epigenetics
Eugenics design a future of human species by fostering reproduction of persons w/ certain traits, while discouraging others
behavioural genetics changing behaviour could in term change your expression of genetics, studying genetics through Bhav patterns
2 Genetics makeup stats 1) 90% is genetic difference 2) 10% environment
percentage of variance individuals vary from each other, which can be partitioned into %s that are due to diff. causes
Heritability statistic refers to proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance
environmentality % of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be attributed to environmental/ nongenetic differences
nature/ nurture debate arguments about whether genes or environment are more important determinants of personality
for an individual there is only uniqueness of genes, genes and environment are inseparable
balance of genetics and situation are .... relevant to the trait being researched
Selective Breeding ID a desirable trait and having & breeding it out of 2 subjects
Family studies correlate degree of genetic relatedness among family members w/ degree of personality similarity
Twin Studies estimate heritability by gauging whether identical twins 100% same DNA
MZ/DZ correlation in twins heritability^2 =2(r^mz-r^dz)
r^mz correlation coefficient computed b/w pairs of monozygotic twins
r^dz correlation b/w dizygotic twins
equal environment assumption environments experienced by ID twins are no similar to each other than are environments experienced by fraternal twins
adoption studies most powerful Bhav genetic methods, correlates differences between genetics Bhav and adopted environment
adoption studies problems assumption of representativeness assumes everyone is of the general population, can be tested through clinical examinations
selective placement adopted children are placed w/ adoptive parents who are similar to birth parents, inflate correlation b/w adopted children & adoptive parents
Extroversion is dimensional
Neuroticism dimension w/ one end characteristic of nervousness, anxiety, volatile, 47% heritability
adoption studies heritability extroversion - 40% neuroticism - 30%
activity level heritability 50% on average for temperaments, emotionality, sociability , persistence, fear, distractibility
substantial heritability dispositions that can be related to one specific trait or disorder
Big five heritability 40%
7 Genetic Influences 1) conservative/ modern 2) occupational preferences 71% 3) religious attitudes 12% 4) smoking MZ twins -16Xs more likely, DZ twins -7Xs more 5) alcohol - 67% W, 71% M 6) propensity to marriage/ single 68% 7) martial satisfaction 50%
3 Sexual Orientation 1) males: hypothalamus-medial preoptic region 2) heritability- 30 to 70% 3) childhood gender nonconformity: M50% W37%
heritable % of traits environmental degree in traits % -30-50% -50-70%
shared environmental influence number of books in a home, absence of TV, parents values, quality & quantity of food
non-shared environment special treatment, groups of friends, different bedrooms, summer camp, different experience
Genotype-environment interaction differential response of individuals w/ different genotypes to same environment
abused children have genotype-environment interactions genotype develops, of low production of MAOA - monoamine oxidase A
genotype-environment correlation differential exposure of individuals w/ diff. genotypes to diff. environments, parents w/ lower verbal skills will not give children proper stimulation
Passive genotype-environment correlation parents provide both genes & environment to children, yet children do nothing to obtain envir.
reactive genotype-environment correlation parents respond to children differently, depending on childs genotype- cuddlers/ noncuddlers
Active genotype-environment correlation a person w/ particular genotype creates or seeks out a particular environment - skydrivers
3 genotype-environment Influences 1) rule breaking 2) promoting cohesion through calmness 3) positive emotionality
Molecular Genetics designed to ID specific genes associated w/ personality traits
DRD4 chromosome 11 codes protein dopamine R = thrill seeking, impulsivity, addiction
DRD2 dopamine receptor gene, different allele of diff. gene of A1 allele of D2-R
7R allele on DRD4 differs greatly in diff. geographical locations, increases migratory populations/ nomadic pop.
5-HTT serotonin transporter stressful events cause depression from this specific gene
environmental view personality is determined by socialization practices, parenting
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