Criminology chapter 1

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criminology in Canada: theories, patterns, and typologies L.J. Siegel C. McCormick

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Question Answer
Criminal Justice System sequential stages of criminal justice through which an offender passes -police, courts, corrections
intimate violence crime that occurs in a context of familiarity ex wife/child abuse
public fear of crime creates a ________ barometer of social health and safe communities
violent behaviour is linked to 1. Observational learning 2. Violent TV shows 3. trauma in childhood 4. mental illness 5. impaired senses/thinking 6.psychopathic personality
Criminology scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behaviour
Criminologist one who brings objectivity & method to study crime/consequences
criminology involves 3 things law breaking, law making, crime control
difference between criminology and criminal justice criminology - nature of crime criminal justice - analyze he work done by police, courts, corrections
deviant behaviour behaviour that departs from social norms but isn't always a crime
decriminalization reducing a penalty for a criminal act but not actually legalizing it.
utilitarianism punishment should be balanced and fair because criminal behaviour must be seen as a purposeful and reasonable
classical criminology theoretical perspective Cesare Beccaria people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviours, commit out of greed/ personal need, controlled through fear
positivism August Comte branch of social science using scientific method of natural science -human behaviour is a product of socio, bio, psycho, economic forces
Positivism 2 elements 1. behaviour is a function of external forces, Genetic, physical structure, bio 2. IQ tests, intelligence
phrenology Franz Joseph Gall Johann kaspar spurzheim study of facial features of criminals to determine antisocial behaviour
criminal anthropology Cesare Lombroso biological positivists early efforts to discover a biological basis of crime by physical measurement and mental process
atavistic anomalies (traits) Cesare Lombroso physical characteristics of born criminals indicate they are throwbacks to animal/primitive ppl
Sociological Criminology 2 important ppl L.A.J. Quetelet Emile Durkheim
Quetelet used? mathematics to study crime and people to find correlations
Emile Durkheim visions of crime crime is normal since it happens at every age and class of people -everyone has there one beliefs and independently choose right/wrong
a rise in crime = the need for social change
Anomie Durkheim rapidly shifting moral values gives few socially accepted guidelines to individuals - normlessness
Chicago school Park, Burgess, Thrasher -type of sociological research -pioneered research on social ecology of city/urban crime
conflict criminology Marx industrial capitalism, owners of the means of production
bourgeois proletariat -owners of means of production, ruling capitalist -working class, sell labour
choice theorists criminals are rational, make the choice to become a criminal -uses deterrence theory
criminal anthropology biological and mental traits interact with environmental factors influence behaviour
Sociological theorists structural perspective -criminal behavior controls the life and individual.
social psychology experiences and socialization directly control behaviour
conflict criminologist Marx social and political conflict as root of crime
criminology enterprise totality of criminology which includes many fields/subareas of study
Subareas of Criminology Criminal Statistics, Sociology of law, Theory of construction, criminal behaviours systems, penology, victimology
criminal statistics subarea that measures the trends of criminal activity
Sociology of law role that social forces play in shaping criminal law & society, updating Criminal Law
Theory Construction Why do people commit crimes or become criminals, personality, genetics, social, economic, poverty, group interaction
Criminal Behaviour Systems criminal types, patterns, tie b/w homicide and victim/offender rela.
white-collar crime Illegal acts that capitalize on person's status in marketplace: embezzlement, market manipulation, restrain of trade, false ads
Penology correction and control of criminal offenders, new crime control strategies, rehabilitation and treatment
Victimology Hans von Hentig Stephen Schafer critical role of Victim creates opportunity & precipitate a crime
criminal law relfects the _______,_______,&______ of society values, beliefs, and opinions
consensus crime functionalist general agreement exists among a majority of ppl on outlawed behaviours/crimes. homocide
conflict view of crime confliction of groups caused by differences in power, economy, political controlled by greed
Interactionist View of crime - 3 ideas 1. people act on their interpretations of reality 2. learn through influence+reaction of ppl 3. reevaluate/interpret meanings of their own behaviour depending on symbols from others
Interactionist P. is based on two things preferences and opinions of people
moral entrepreneurs interest groups/powerful individuals who attempt to control social life/ legal order to promote own moral values
1)before 1960 2)1960s 3)1970s 1)consensus view 2)internationalist 3)conflict
crime a violation of societal rules of behaviour through criminal legal code by ppl holding power. If violated ppl are subjected to sanctions, social stigma, loss of status
Survey Research cross-sectional research, samples, self-report surveys -designed to measure attitudes and behaviour participants
cross-sectional research Surveys that use data from all age, race, gender, and income segments of population
Longitudinal research observations over time of a group of ppl who share a characteristic
cohort a sample of subjects whose behaviour is followed over a period
retrospective longitudinal survey court records are used to examine correlation of age, personal characteristics, sentence length, rehabilitation efforts
Aggregate data research Statistics Canada, Correctional Services Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Uniform Crime Reporting
Aggregated Data effect of overall social trends and patterns on crime rate ex. correlation of crime with poverty
Experimental Research 1. random assignment of subjects 2. control/comparison group 3. experimental conditions
observational and interview research interviewing a few subjects in depth or observing them while they go about their day/activities
Ethical issues in Research 1. Government research funding being biased 2. Subjects of inquiry - mislead the research
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