PoR GCSE Revision Existence of God

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Flashcards on PoR GCSE Revision Existence of God, created by p.northre on 02/15/2014.

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Created by p.northre over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the first cause argument? 1. Everything exists has been caused to exist 2. The universe exists. 3. The universe has to be caused. 4. What caused the universe has to be transcendent, necessary, eternal and spiritual. 5. The first cause must be God as he is the only thing that fits these criteria.
What is the kalam argument? (Muslim view) Everything that HAS BEGUN TO exist has been caused to exist. The universe HAS BEGUN to exist. The universe had to be caused by something necessary, transcendent, spiritual and eternal. God
Give 4 arguments for the First cause argument Uses empirical evidence We know the law of cause and effect The fact we measure time means there must have been an original starting point Genesis 1 backs up idea of God creating universe Scientists don't know what caused Big Bang God said "Let there be light" (Genesis 1:3) God is necessary so doesn't follow the rules of anything contingent (kalam argument)
Give 4 arguments against the First cause argument Uses inductive reasoning, makes a big leap of logic between premises and conclusion Not everything is an effect linked back to a cause EG subatomic particles act randomly-no cause Why do we assume universe is contingent? More empirical evidence to support Big Bang theory (EG background radiation) If everything needs to have a cause, what caused God? What sort of God does the arguments prove? One who started everything off, but doesn't seem to be involved in the world now? Omnibenevolence?
Give 2 arguments stating the First Cause argument does prove a God that cares. What are the chances of humans to be here in the universe today unless it was made perfectly? We abuse our free will which God gave us
Give 2 arguments against the idea the First Cause argument proves there is a God who cares Argument only goes as far as saying there is an eternal, transcendent cause Proof that God is involved in world? More likely created at random moment
What is the design argument? There are things in the universe which show apparent design/purpose From our experience of universe, things showing design must have designer Designer must have great intelligence and power to create intricate objects Designer must be God God exists
What is Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) explanation of design argument? An arrow won't hit a target by itself. Needs someone to intend to shoot it towards target. Shape, weighting, balance and feathers of arrow play a part to help arrow hit bulls eye. None of this could just happen; same as whole of creation needs intelligent designer for there to be order and purpose within it
What is William Paley (1743-1805) explanation of the design argument? If on a walk you passed a rock, you wouldn't question it's existence. If you stumbled on a watch for first time, you'd think it couldn't have simply happened. Too complex. Must be a maker. Same as creation. So much order, can't just have happened.
Give 3 arguments stating the design argument doesn't prove the existence of God Design doesn't necessarily indicate designer-evolution theory gives convincing explanation Just because people are still talking about an argument doesn't mean it's true Purpose can be explained through evolution-features we don't need have been got rid of through natural selection Examples of cruelty in world makes you ask question why would God (designer) allow animals to play with prey before killing, natural disasters. Poor design
Give 3 arguments stating the design argument proves the existence of God Lots of examples of design in world-empirical evidence Design argument dates back to 13th century, lasted long time-valid Paley makes valid point-purpose of many different things working for one goal (eg Eye)
How does religious experience argue that God exists? If an entity (thing) is experienced, it must exist God is the sort of being that it is possible to experience or encounter directly, as he is omnipotent, immanent etc... People claim to have experienced God directly God exists
Give an example of a biblical religious experience. Moses and the Burning Bush-Exodus 3 Moses went to the mountain and saw a burning bush with an angel. God spoke and told Moses to save the people of Israel from the Egyptians. He told Moses to say the Lord had sent him
What is a religious experience? The belief in and worship of a super-human controlling power, especially a personal God or gods; a particular system of faith and worship
Give a non-biblical religious experience Julian of Norwich May 8 1373, Julian (aged 30) suffered a severe illness. She almost died. During illness she received many visions of Passion of Christ & love of God. After experience she became anchoress at St Julian's and spent rest of life in prayer and meditation. Over 20 years she wrote a book about her experiences.
Give 2 ways we have day to day experiences Through our senses (empirical evidence) Through an instinct Through testimonies of other people (EG: someone explains a country you've never been to before)
What happens when you have a religious experience? Sense of awe Sense of mystery in presence of holy Feelings of dependence on divine power Feelings of guilt Feelings of peace Sense of purpose
Name 4 different types of religious experience Conversion Miracle Revelation Near Death Experience Out of Body Experience Mystical experience Corporate experience Visions
Name 4 effects of a religious experience experiencing ultimate reality Deep inner peace Optimistic, purposeful future Urged to help others Being called for particular job
Give 3 arguments for the idea that religious experience proves the existence of God People who've had REs can't deny what's happened, but can't put experience into words (INEFFABLE) Valid religious experiences come randomly. Person has done nothing to prepare-can't be accused of mental aberration Most people who have REs are down-to-Earth people REs happen to people of ALL religions, social classes and educational backgrounds So many people have similar types of experience linked to God strongly Based on EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE People are prepared to die after RE
Give 3 arguments against religious experience proving the existence of God No evidence that people who claim REs are telling truth People don't have REs from other religions Some foods/alcholos/drugs make people feel strange-could be misunderstanding making people think they have RE Why doesn't God give everybody REs so there's no doubt he exists? Uses INDUCTIVE REASONING-big leap between premises & conclusion
What is faith? A commitment to something that can't be totally proved, but isn't contrary to facts It is a leap of logic
What makes it difficult to have faith? Science, suffering, secular society, culture
Give a Biblical example of faith Saul's Conversion Saul was "breathing out murderous threats" to disciples. A light from heaven flashed around him. He heard a voice saying "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?". It was Jesus who Saul was persecuting. Men around Saul were speechless, could hear sound but see no-one. Saul was blind for 3 days. He went to the city Damascus as Jesus had told him. In the city he met a disciple named Ananias. Ananias was called by Lord who told him to go to Saul and cure him of his blindness for Saul was God's "chosen instrument to proclaim [his] name to the Gentiles and their kings". After his conversion, Saul changed name to Paul & was Christian missionary. He was arrested for annoying Jews and beheaded in Rome in 110CE
Give 2 arguments stating faith proves the existence of God In secular world science tries to disprove God, faith is crucial for believing. Many statements go against science eg: resurrection If God's existence were obvious and didn't need faith believing in God would be no different to believing in a postman, which you can see. If there was empirical evidence of God, would have to worship-removes free will
What is the difference between faith and proof? FAITH: leap into unknown, can't have faith in what is known PROOF: Can remove doubts so faith can flourish, uses logic and empirical evidence.
Give 3 arguments against the existence of God and the nature of faith. Why do we need to invent a God to make sense of what we know and don't know? Universal knowledge increasing so will be able to understand how things began Evolution shown not specific design in universe, just adaptation. This doesn't need God to explain it. Needless pain and suffering in world. If there was omnipotent/omnibenevolent God, would have made happier world (inconsistent triad) If God is exists, why doesn't he let us know?