Observations

Hazel Meades
Flashcards by Hazel Meades, updated more than 1 year ago
Hazel Meades
Created by Hazel Meades over 7 years ago
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Experiment key words to do with observations.

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Question Answer
What is observational technique? When the investigator examines behaviour through watching the participant and writing it down.
What are the strengths of the observational technique? If it's a naturalistic observation then it is high in ecological validity.
What are the weaknesses of the observational technique? Demand characteristics can occur, the Hawthorne effect can be apparent in overt observations and different observers may interpret different behaviour differently.
Name and define 2 types of structural observation. Time sampling - observations are made at regular time intervals and coded. Event sampling - a tally chart is kept for each time a type of behaviour occurs.
What is the operationalisation of variables? Deciding on a way to compare and test variables in a fashion that is measurable.
What is a pilot study? A practise test to see what variables must be controlled.
What are demand characteristics? Cues that might reveal your aim. Participants change behaviour to conform to expectations. E.g: Hans the horse.
What are direct and indirect investigator effects? The body language and language of the experimenter may influence the response of the participants. It can be direct (as a response of interaction with participant) or indirect (as a result of the study design).
What is experimental realism? When the task is engaging so the participant pays attention and forgets that they're being observed.
What is the Hawthorne effect? The tendency for participants to alter their behaviour if they know they're being observed.
What is a participant observation? When the observer acts as part of the group being watched.
What is a non-participant observation? When the experimenter doesn't become part of the group being observed.
What is the difference between covert and overt observations? Covert - the research is carried out undercover Overt - the researcher makes their identity and purpose known the group being observed.
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