ch.7 anxiety disorders

Flashcards by cassandra, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by cassandra over 7 years ago


dev.psych (ch.7 anxiety disorders ) Flashcards on ch.7 anxiety disorders, created by cassandra on 02/18/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
anxiety disorders lifetime prevalence for this is 8-30%
anxiety mood state characterized by strong negative emotion and bodily symptoms of tension in which child anticipates future danger
False. many children with anxiety disorders suffer from multiple at a time You can only be diagnosed with 1 anxiety disorder at once. True or False?
neurotic paradox in a situation where the child knows there's nothing to be afraid of, he/she still fears and tries to avoid the situation (it's very self-defeating)
fight/flight response immediate reaction to perceived danger or threat, aim is to escape potential harm
sympathetic nervous system danger is perceived or anticipated and sent to "this" system responsible for FIGHT/FLIGHT
cognitive system activation of "this" system causes a subjective feeling of apprehension, nervousness, difficulty focusing and panic
negative reinforcement avoidance behaviours provide "THIS" type of reinforcement
fear immediate alarm reaction to current danger or life-threatening emergencies
panic group of physical symptoms of fight/flight response that unexpectedly occur in the absence of any obvious threat or danger
girls "they" rate themselves as MORE fearful
school-related fears these types of fears are stable
rituals help children gain control and mastery over environment, makes world predictable and safer why rituals are so important to children with anxiety
SAD (separation anxiety disorder) characterized by excessive worry regarding separation from home or parents
GAD (generalized anxiety disorder) ongoing/excessive worry about many events and activities
social phobia/ social anxiety disorder severe and unreasonable fear of being embarrassed or humiliated when doing stuff in front of others
panic disorder recurrent, unexpected and severe attacks of anxiety
panic disorder with agoraphobia experience severe anxiety attacks AND avoid situations in which attacks have occurred
acute stress disorder following a traumatic event, youths display short-term symptoms of PTSD lasting less than a month
separation anxiety disorder age inappropriate, disabling anxiety about being apart from parents, 4-10% of all children, more prevalent in GIRLS, age of onset 7-8 years old , school refusal behaviour
school refusal behaviour refusal to attend classes or difficulty remaining in school for an entire day, EQUALLY COMMON in boys/girls, 5-11 mostly, peaks in 2nd grade
generalized anxiety disorder chronic or exaggerated worry and tension, relate every frightening event in media to themselves, 3-6% of all children, onset in late childhood, self-conscious, self-doubting, worried about meeting others' expectations, extremely high standards for their own performance, highly critical when they fall short, **uncontrollable nature of worry**
specific phobia extreme/disabling fear of PARTICULAR OBJECTS or SITUATIONS, really pose little to no danger, 4-10% of children have it, few referred for treatment, peaks at 10-13, onset at ANY AGE
evolutionary theory this theory explains why kids may develop specific phobias, suggests human infants biologically predisposed to learn certain fears alerting them to danger
animal, natural, environment, blood-injection-injury, situational, other 5 subtypes of specific phobias
social phobia (social anxiety disorder) fear of being focus of attention or scrutiny, or doing stuff in public that will be embarrassing, 6-12% of children are affected, girls 2x more likely to be affected than boys, onset= post-puberty,
selective mutism this is displayed in kids with social anxiety disorder/social phobia, they fail to talk in specific social situations, even though they may speak loudly or frequently at home or in other settings,
INCREASED hippocampal activation while they appraised how they thought the others would evaluate them, as age increased, neural activity INCREASED in females but stayed the same in males STUDY: how people with thought preferred peers would evaluate them
obsession persistent, intrusive thought/impulse/idea/image
sexual, somatic, religious common obsessions in adults
compulsion repetitive, purposeful, intentional behaviour (hand washing)
washing or bathing 85% of cases are "this" type of compulsion
OCD prevalence of this in children, adolescents and adults is 1-3%
OCD age of onset of this disorder is 9-12 years old
panic attack sudden and overwhelming period of intense fear or discomfort that is accompanied by 4 or MORE physical and cognitive symptoms characteristic of the fight/flight response
panic disorder recurrent unexpected attacks followed by at least 1 month of persistent concern about having another attack, worry about consequences, or severe change in behaviour relevant to attacks
panic disorder onset for this disorder is LATE, 95% are post-pubertal, 15-19 years old
depression GAD, SAD and social phobia are more commonly associated with "this" than is specific phobia
negative affectivity persistent negative mood, reflected in nervousness, sadness, anger and guilt
positive affectivity persistent positive mood including states such as joy, enthusiasm, and energy
classic psychoanalytic theory anxieties and phobias are defenses against unconscious conflicts rooted in child's early upbringing, anxiety protect child agains unconscious wishes and drives
behavioural and learning theories fears and anxieties were learned through classical conditioning, fears learned by association (ex. little Albert)
Bowlby's theory of attachment fearfulness in children is biologically rooted in the emotional attachment needed for survival, infants must be close to parents if their physical and emotional needs are to be met
temperament psychological and physical reaction to novel or unexpected events differ due to a number of factors
5 times more likely children of parents with AD are "this" many times more likely to get AD
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex these 3 interrelated systems operate together to produce anxiety
flooding exposure is carried out in prolonged and repeated doses until anxiety diminishes, typically combined with response prevention, prevents child from engaging in escape or avoidance behaviours
CBT most effective technique for treating phobias, teaches children to understand how thinking contributes to anxiety, and how to modify their thoughts to decrease symptoms
4 steps of FEAR learned in CBT f: feeling frightened? (recognize physical symptom), e: expecting bad things (recognize anxious cognitions), a: attitudes and actions that will help (coping self-talk), r: results and reward (evaluate performance and administer self-reward for effort)
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