The Cell : Anatomy and Division

Kisha Limose
Flashcards by Kisha Limose, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Kisha Limose
Created by Kisha Limose over 3 years ago
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Description

-Stages of mitosis, inter phase, and cytokinesis -identify and list major functions of organelles -major function of : nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane -identify mitotic phases -explain the importance of mitotic cell division and its product

Resource summary

Question Answer
Define Cell . Cell : the structural and functional unit of all living things .
In all cells; name 3 major regions, or parts that can easily be identified with a light microscope -Nucleus -Cytoplasm -Plasma Membrane
The nucleus contains The genetic material, DNA, which are also called "genes"
The nucleus is also known as The control Center
Define Chromatin . Chromatin : a threadlike material that contains genetic material .
Define Nucleoli . Nucleoli : composed of primarily proteins and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA); sites for ribosomal particles .
The nucleus is bound by a double-layered membrane called ? The Nuclear Envelope
The nuclear envelope is similar in composition to other cellular membranes but, it is distinguished by ? its large Nuclear Pores
What does the plasma membrane do ? the plasma membrane separates cell contents from the surrounding environment .
what does a plasma membrane consists of ? -phospholipids (fats) -Globular protein
Besides providing a protective barrier, the plasma membrane plays an active role in determining what ? Determing which substances may enter or leave the cell and in what quantity aka Selective Permeability .
Transport in the plasma membrane occurs in two ways : 1. Active Transport : the cell must provide energy, ATP to power the transport process . 2. Passive Transport : the transport process is driven by concentration or pressure .
Define Microvilli . Microvilli : fingerlike projections or folds
Microvilli's Function. Microvilli : 1. increases the surface area of the cell available for absorption or passage of materials 2. and for binding of signaling molecules.
What does the cytoplasm consists of ? cell contents; lies between the nucleus and the plasma membrane .
The fluid cytoplasmic material is called ? Cytosol
Organelles found in the cytosol -Ribosomes -Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough & Smooth) -Golgi Apparatus -lysosomes -peroxisomes -mitochondria -centrioles -Cytoskeletal elements (intermidiate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules )
Location and function of a Ribosome Function : Tiny spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein . Location : floating free or attached to a membranous structure (Rough ER) in the cytoplasm .
Location and Function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum . Location : membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm Smooth ER Function : has no function in protein synthesis (rather its a site for steroid, & lipid sythesis, lipid metabolism, drug detoxification) Rough ER Function : studded with ribosomes, its tubules provides an area for storage and transport of proteins made on ribosomes to other cell areas; external face synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol .
Location and Function of Golgi Apparatus Location : stackd of flattened sacs and small vesicles. found close to the nucleus Function : plays a role in packaging proteins or other substances for export
Function of Lysosomes Various-sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases) Function : to digest worn out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter the cell.
Function of Peroxisomes Function : Small lysosome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals .
Function of Mitochondria Function : contains enzymes that oxidize foodsrtuffs to produce cellular energy (ATP) often referred to as "Powerhouse of the cell"
Location and function of Centrioles Location : Paired, cylindrical bodies that lie at right angles to each other, close to the nucleus. Function : directs the formation if the mitotic spindle during cell division; forms the bases of cilia and flagella .
Location and Function of Cytoskeletal Elements Function: provides cellular support -Microfilaments are important in cell motility -intermediate filaments resists mechanical forces acting on cells -Microtubules form internal structures of centrioles and help determine cell shape
deine interphase Interphase : the longer period during which the cell grows and carries out its usual activities.
Define cell division Cell division : when the cell reproduces itself by dividing
Cell division consists of a series of events called ? Mitosis and Cytokinesis -Mitosis : a nuclear division -Cytokinesis: the division of the cytoplasm
Define mitosis Mitosis : is two daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to the mother nucleus
Define Meiosis. Meoisis: is a specialized type of nuclear division that occurs only in the reproductive organs (testes, ovaries) contains 4 daughter nuclei that differ genetically in composition from the mother nucleus.
Interphase the period of a cell's life when it carries out its normal metabolic activities and grows ae6b09a2-a66d-4735-8b4b-ae2a01f2844d.jpeg (image/jpeg)
Early Prophase -duplicated chromosome appear as identical threads now called sister chromatids -microtubules propel centrosomes towards opposite ends (poles) -microtubules exhibit rays called asters (stars) a743c676-c2ff-493e-ab61-b943937875a8.jpeg (image/jpeg)
Late Prophase 81128ad0-b6c8-4594-930d-38455436dfd0.jpeg (image/jpeg)
Metaphase -second phase of mitosis -centrosomes at opposite poles of cell -chromosomes clusterat the middle of the cell 76b42eac-139b-416b-a1b1-8e515dcc496d.jpeg (image/jpeg)
Anaphase -third short phase -moving chromosomes look v-shaped "arms" dangle behind them ab802ba4-ca91-42f2-8ce4-3ee53d2d98eb.jpeg (image/jpeg)
Telophase -nuclearenvelope forms around each chromatin -nucleoli reappears -spindle breaks down and disappears -Mitosis is done -the cell is binucleate, with a nucleus identical to the original mother nucleus aad86da0-abc6-49b1-838b-7a15387ed9de.jpeg (image/jpeg)
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