ALKANES

Monica Rodrigues
Flashcards by Monica Rodrigues, updated more than 1 year ago
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AS organic chemistry flashcards on alkanes
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What is a hydrocarbon? A compound containing ONLY hydrogen and carbon atoms aa0f68d4-4e6f-4c3e-980e-8cf239f558c7.png (image/png)
What is a functional group? An atom or group of atoms that give a compound its characteristic chemical reactivity fc3399e3-b74c-41d2-8b75-c060b0717bac.png (image/png)
What is a homologous series? A series of compounds that have the same FUNCTIONAL GROUP and the same GENERAL FORMULA. Successive members of the series differ by an extra CH2 unit cbf7db2a-ff09-40a8-8c36-031b285c331f.png (image/png)
What is the meaning of saturated? An organic compound which contains ONLY single bonds between carbon atoms 76860ca3-d02e-456e-b403-c96cabacbbbf.png (image/png)
What is the name given to the relationship between compounds with the same molecular formula? Structural isomers bd8efebf-cbb1-4711-941c-c512da3c8b7e.png (image/png)
When does incomplete combustion occur? When there is insufficient oxygen
Why is incomplete combustion a problem? Carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin not allowing oxygen to do so. + CO is toxic and prolonged exposure is fatal. 7a278477-cdf9-4fed-b31e-d752107495d2.jpg (image/jpg)
Why the reaction of an halogen with an alkane not a particularly good way to manufacture a desired compound? - It's a radical substitution reaction - Further substitution may occur - Many other products are made - Yield of wanted product is low
What is a radical? An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron 86998ea2-c49c-4fb4-8b3b-0b85a57d68a4.png (image/png)
What is homolytic fission? A process where a covalent bond breaks so that one electron making up the covalent bond stays with one atom and the other electron stays with the other e90b9730-6441-441e-a717-565b3cb327b9.png (image/png)
What are the stages of radical substitution? 1. INITIATION: UV breaks bonds in halogen forming radicals 2. PROPAGATION: Radical reacts with alkane (takes H from alkane) leaves alkane as a radical : Alkane radical takes an atom from halogen molecule 3. TERMINATION: any 2 radicals react -> stable molecule
What are the conditions required for radical substitution to occur? UV light 7c72820a-a59e-48c2-b8e6-227c3023221c.jpg (image/jpg)
What are isoelectronic species? Elements or ions that have the same, or equal number of electrons
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