The Nervous System: Major Structures, Functions And How To Examine Them

Hannah Shakeshaft
Flashcards by Hannah Shakeshaft, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Shakeshaft
Created by Hannah Shakeshaft over 3 years ago
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Taking a basic look at the nervous system, in terms of its major strucures and functionalities.

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Question Answer
The Central Nervous System (CNS) This comprises of the brain and the spinal chord. Controlling the higher order cognitive functions such as learninh, memory and thought.
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) This is made up of all the nerves outside of the Brain and Spinal Chord and sensory neurons. (this is divided up further into the SNS and ANS)
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Otherwise know as the voluntary system carries impulses to the skeletal muscles and sensory receptors from the brain and spinal chord
Autonomic Nervous System ANS Otherwise know as involuntary carries impulses from the body's internal organs. (Is further divided into the Sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system)
Sympathetic Vs Parasympathetic The sNS is the 'fight or flight' system that prepares the body for action by increasing the animal's heart rate; blood pressure etc. the psNS does the opposite (rest)
Nerves in short, they are cylindrical bundles of fibress that start at the brain and spinal chord and branch out to the rest of the body.
Neurons are a complex collection of nerves that send signals to other cells through fibres called Axons. Causing chemicals (neurotransmitters) to be released at junctions called Synapses.
Synapses Is the space between an axon and another cells membrane, commanding to the cell and the entire communication process. 7a608ade-f3db-4a5d-9ae2-777a6d14f0c2.jpg (image/jpg)
Sensory Neurons Sensory Neurons react to physical stimuli (light, sound, touch), and send feedback to the CNS about the current environment.
Motor Neurons Located in the CNS or Peripheral ganglia(cluster of neurons), transmit signals to activate muscles or glands.
Glial Cells Support, protecy or nourish nerve cells
Classifications Multi-polar = Central Nervous system - one dendrite BiPolar = axon at both ends Monopolar = Single Branch - input and output zones
Myelin Affects speed of neural impulse - covers the axon as a fatty diposite type tissue. 77eb78e2-d402-41b0-8667-f1e9010a8f38.jpg (image/jpg)
Dendrite Connected to the neuron by axon pillar 6261c737-894d-408e-b018-9bfd83740951.jpg (image/jpg)
Resting Membrane Potential Potential: stored up source of electrical energy - like a battery - at rest = -70mV De-polarisation: the inside relevant to the outside. Electrical potential becomes less negative in charge. RMP neutrally is -70mV, then becomes -65mV. Hyperpolarisation: Inside relative to outside, electrical potential becomes more negative in charge. RMP = -85mV.
Maintaining the Membrane Potential Sodium-potassium pumps move two potassium ions inside the cell as three sodium ions are pumped out to maintain the negatively-charged membrane inside the cell; this helps maintain the resting potential
Diffusion Diffusion: (concentration gradient = high to low). Selective permeability: (molecules always moving from one area to another without blockage)
Electrostatic Pressure attract or repelled molecules, eg. ions of positive charge and ions of negative - attract, and pos + pos = repel.
Ion Levels Anions: Negatively Charged - proteins and chloride Cations: Positively charged - sodium and potassium
Intracellular Fluid & Extracellular Fluid Different concentrations of ions
Action Potential ca31e6ae-f7c3-4f14-8531-2db80d4ae923.jpg (image/jpg)
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