Personality Psychology Chapter 9

Flashcards by shattering.illus, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by shattering.illus almost 6 years ago


Macewan University Psychology 233 Personality Psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature 5th edition R.J. Larsen, D.M Buss

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Question Answer
Limits in certain states on amount of time previous to abuse and memory slippage 3 years - California
Interpretation of Dreams published in 1900
Followers of Freud in 1902 Alfred adler, Jung
1908 freud created the Psychoanalytic society of Vienna
1910 International Psychoanalytic Association
1938 Germany invasion, flew to London w/ family not long after, did not believe he should fear them
psychic energy source of energy that is w/in everyone, like a wellspring of motivation
instincts source of psychic energy, strong innate forces that provide all energy in psychic system
Freuds: instincts theory was based on 2 evolutionary theories 1) self-preservation 2) sexual instincts
sexual instincts & self-preservation become Life instincts (libido)
watching WWI gave birth to the notion of... death instinct (thanatos)
Libido/ life instincts need-satisfying, life-sustaining, pleasure-orientated
Thanatos/ Death instinct urge to destroy, harm, or aggress against others and self
conscious part of self that contains all thoughts, feelings, perceptions that you are presently aware of
preconscious info w/h is stored, & can easily be retrieved and made conscious
unconscious unacceptable information, hidden from consciousness so well we are unaware,
nothing happens by chance of accident every reaction, reason, act, feeling, thought have a hidden motive/ reason
Talking therapy began w/ Anna O.
hysteric symptoms occurred from physical expression of repressed traumatic experiences, need emotional catharsis to release
freud gives credit to Dr. Joseph Breuer
blind-sight 1960s ppl who are suffering from cortical blindness, often able to make judgments about objects that they believe they cannot see
reasons for blind-sight optic nerve carries info to brain, transferred to primary visual center in striate cortex; the split b/w optic center and recognition center in optic nerve gives patient ability to see even thought seeing.
deliberation-without-awareness person can put something out of mind for a time, while the unconscious mind will continue to deliberate giving sudden feelings of knowing or arriving to a conclusion
id source of drives and urges, let off all internal pressure
pleasure principle desire for immediate gratification
primary process thinking thinking w/out logical rules of conscious thought or anchor in reality
wish fulfillment something unavailable is conjured up and image causes temporary satisfaction
ego constrains the id to reality, redirects internal pressure
reality principle ego ego understands urges of id, often in conflict w/ social & physical reality
direct expression (DE) in reality principle, ego uses DE to avoid, redirect, postpone id impulses
secondary process thinking development of strategies for solving problems & obtaining satisfaction
superego part of mind that internalizes values, morals, ideals of society: socialization, ID w/ parents, wants to keep all values closed
superego instills guilt, shame, embarrassment
superego principles moral goals, ideals of perfection, source of judgment for good & bad, conscious, enforcing right & wrong, can be unrealistic and harsh
mind is a closed energy system: more energy used for one self control activity less for other
ego depletion exertion of self control in face of temptation, leading a person to give up sooner
Baumeister muscle control metaphor if self control is used more it is a stronger muscle
defense mechanisms efforts to defend oneself from anxiety
3 types of anxiety 1) objective 2) neurotic 3) moral anxiety
Objective anxiety fear, response to real, external threat, control of ego is being threatened by outside forces
neurotic anxiety direct conflict b/w id and ego: ego may lose control over id
moral anxiety conflict b/w ego and superego: chronic feelings of shame, unattainable standards, low self-esteem, feels of worthlessness: overly powerful superego
defense mechanisms 2 functions 1) protect ego 2) minimize anxiety & distress
7 defense mechanisms: 1) repression 2) Denial 3) displacement 4) rationalization 5) reaction formation 6) projection 7) sublimation
repression process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, urges from reaching conscious
denial insists that things are not way they seem, refusing facts
fundamental attribution error part of denial tendency to blame events outside one's control for failure but accept responsibility for success
displacement a threatening or unacceptable impulse is channeled or redirected from its original source to nonthreatening target
repressors are: verbally not worried and physically aroused/ distressed, more elaborate stories w/ less memories of good or bad
2 occurrence of repression may happen: 1) encoding stage: reaction to negative event, distorts 2) recall stage: actually repressing memory after encoding occurs
rationalization generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise appear socially unacceptable, fantasy is easier to accept than reality
reaction formation flurry of Bhav that indicate opposite impulse, being overly kind to an angry person
projection seeing others in traits and desires we find most upsetting in ourselves, our unacceptable selves
false consensus effect Ross, Greene, House tendency may ppl have to assume that others are similar to them
sublimation most adaptive, channeling of unacceptable sexual/ aggressive instincts into socially desired activities
psychosexual stages theory children seek sexual gratification at each stage by investing libidinal energy in specific body parts, these stages become aspects of personality that is exhibited
fixation failing to resolve a conflict w/in a stage, exhibits a less mature approach to obtaining sexual gratification
Oral Stage 0-18 months, pleasure comes from things coming into contact w/ mouth, conflict from w/drawing from breast, pleasure vs. dependency, fixation of mouth leads to dependency
Biting at the oral stage is linked to gain pleasure from being aggressive, hostile, quarrelsome, mocking
Anal Stage 1.5-3 years, obtains pleasure from first expelling feces, during toilet training from retaining feces, self-control is develops well or into compulsive, perfect or sloppy/ dirty
Phallic stage 3-5 years, he or she discovers penis, awakening of sexual desire outside
Phallic stage Oedipal conflict unconscious wish to have his mother all to himself by eliminating the father
Phallic stage castration anxiety fear of losing penis b/c the father wants to make a preemptive strike to rid himself of competition
identification Phallic stage wanting to become like dad
Penis envy Lacking a penis causes a girl to blame mother, desire father and envies him, no motivation to give up those feelings
Electra complex Phallic stage Jungs idea freud rejected this idea instead believing women never succeeded in resolution of superego is never resolved causing, Jung believed women wanted to kill mother to gain fathers approval
Latency stage age 6 until puberty, going to school, period of psychological rest/ latency, learning about social aspects of life
Genital stage sexual awakening after puberty to adulthood, libido focuses on genitals therefore developing personality
Psychoanalysis a technique for helping individuals who are experiencing a mental disorder or minor problems w/ living, reconstructing personality
free association relax and saying whatever comes to mind, w/out censoring potentially important info is released, subtle signs are shown through non-verbal communication
Dream Analysis uncovering unconscious material in a dream by interpreting dream`s content
manifest content what the dream actually contains
latent content what elements of dream represents
while sleeping the ego... disguises disturbing content of our unconscious
symbols need deciphering: how unacceptable impulses & urges are transformed by unconscious
3 functions of dreaming 1) wish fulfillment, desire gratification in symbolic form 2) provide a safety value by releasing unconscious tension 3) guardians of sleep, no anxiety
projective hypothesis person projects personality images onto ambiguous figures
interpretations patient is led to view problematic thoughts, dreams, Bhav, symptoms, feelings have expression in unconscious conflicts
insight intense emotional experience that accompanies release of repressed material
resistance patient typically feels threatened as unconscious material comes up, forces that have worked to repress disturbing impulses or trauma now work to resist process, will try to derail or avoid
transference patient begins reacting to analyst as if an important figure in patients own life, repetition compulsion
4 why is psychoanalysis important 1) second largest school of psychological thought 2) resurgence of interest in Freudian ideas 3) popular culture has integrated w/ it 4) laid foundation for many topics and questions
5 Critics of psychoanalysis 1) does not have contemporary research 2) limited observations from narrow sources 3) Emphasis on sexual drives in childhood development is inappropriate 4) human nature is violent, self-centered, impulsive 5) Freud`s view of women
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