Biology 108 - Protists

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Chemistry 101 Biology 108 Flashcards on Biology 108 - Protists, created by jennabarnes12387 on 03/16/2014.

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Question Answer
What are the three supergroups of Protists? Alveolates, stramenopiles, and Rhizarians
The Alveolate supergroup of Protists is made up of what three sub groups? dinoflagellates, Apicomplexans, and Ciliates
Describe the dinoflagellates subgroup? Part of both the marine and fw plankton community. They can be both Herero and mixotrophs and they have 2 flagella for moving. Some of them produce a toxin that when released turns water brown or red and causes major fatalities in other marine organisms.
Describe the Apicomplexans subgroup. These are animal parasites that can have 1 or 2 intermediate host and 1 main host. They have a very complex life cycle with but asexual and sexual stages. They have apicoplats which are non-photosynthetic plastids that are used for fatty acid synthesis as they don't go through photosynthesis.
Describe the complex life cycle of Apicomplexans. E.g. Plasmodium falciparum in humans. Sporozoites of the parasite develop inside mosquitoes. When the human is bitten the sporosoites are released into the bloodstream and go to the liver cells. There they will invade the liver cells and multiply in the liver, each sporozoite dividing into 5-200 menozoics. The menozoics are released back into the blood stream. They then invade red blood cells and divide to make up to 2000 gametophytes and then cause the red blood cells to explode. The body recognizes the gametophytes as foreign invades and increases metabolic rate with high temperatures to attack the invades. Organisms usually die of very high fevers
Describe the Alveolates subgroup Ciliates. These Protists have cilia for movement. They have two types of nuclei, a macro nucleus for vegetative function and asexual reproduction and a micronuclei for conjunction and sexual reproduction
The protist supergroup includes what three subgroups? Golden algae, brown algae, and diatoms
Describe the stramenopiles subgroup diatoms. These are unicellular photo autotrophs which means the us light energy and organic carbon. They have a silica shell, not to be confused with a test which is pours, the shell is not. They use mostly sexual reproduction and have well preserved fossils that show how diverse the group is.
Describe the stramenopiles subgroup golden algae. A multicellular plant that produced both yellow and brown carotenoids pigmnets
Describe the stramenopiles subgroup brown algae Like the golden algae they are a multicellular seaweed but they produce more brown carotenoids pigment then yellow
The protist supergroup rhizarians contains what 3 subgroups? Forams, radiolarians, and cercozoans.
Describe the rhizarians subgroup cercozoans or more recently named, chlorarachniophytes These are mixotrophic organisms that are found in tropical oceans. They can produce ameboid like cytoplasmic extensions to catch bacteria
Describe the rhizarians subgroup foraminiferans or forams They have a test made of calcium carbonate with pseudopodia extensions through the pore so f the test. Beaches in Bermuda sometimes have pink sand from the presence of their tests
Describe huge rhizarians subgroup radiolarians. They have a silica test and pseudopodia extensions for feeding. They mostly lives in marine environments and are planktonic heterotrophs
The archaeaplastids is? A group that descended from ancient Protists that includes reed algae, green algae, and land plants. We don't study land plants now
Describe the rhodophytes subgroup or red algae These organisms do not have flagella at any stage in their development. Containing mostly the phycoerythrin red pigment, meaning they reflect red light and absorb blue. They are usually multicellular autotrophs that live in marine environments. And example is Nori for cooking in Japan
Describe the subgroup chlorophytes or green algae. These are the closest relatives to land lands. They can be unicellular like Spirogyra, colonial like volvox, or multicellular like ulva.
The Unikonts supergroup is? A very diverse group of Eukaryotes that include fungi, animals, slime molds, tubulinids, nucleariids, entamoebas, and choanoflagellates, and gymnamoebas. We only study gymnamoebas, entamoebas, and slime molds
describe the Amoebozoan subgroup in domain Unikonts, Gymnameobas. these are mostly free living heterotrophs that live in the soil or marine environments. they are large enough to see with the naked eye. they have to parts to there cytoplasm, the inner being called the endoplasm and the outer called the ectoplasm. They use Pseudopod foot formation to move
how is the Pseudopod foot formation in amoebas similar to muscle contractions both processes use the actin to change shape. in muscles, actin and myosin molecules are arranged in an alternation pattern with myosin in the middle dividing two molecules of actin. the actin molecules are pulled closer together to make the muscles contract, sliding them by the myosin molecules like sliding doors. amoebas take all their actin molecules to polymerize and make a granule gel. the liquid moves like a fountain into the cells place and moves the cell in that direction
describe the Unikonts subgroup, Entameobas. although they are a subgroup pf amoebas they don't look much like them. they are parasitic amoebozoans such as E. histolytic which is fatal to humans
describe the unikonts subgroup slime molds they are similar to fungi as they have similar features from necessitiy but they seperated early in their evolution (convergence) they are a group of organisms that work together to stay alive. the zygote is the only 2n stage
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