Biology 108 - Sex and Reproduction

Flashcards by jennabarnes12387, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jennabarnes12387 over 7 years ago


Chemistry 101 Biology 108 Flashcards on Biology 108 - Sex and Reproduction, created by jennabarnes12387 on 03/26/2014.

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Question Answer
describe the cell cycle. G1 is the growth of the cell and the division of the centrioles. in the s phase the chromosomes replicate and the cell grows more. in the G2 phase the cell growth even more and the cell gets ready to divide. mitosis happens and the nucleus divide in two that are identical. finally cytokinesis happens and the cells are separate, the process starting again
describe meiosis. when a diploid fertilized cell divides into 4 haploid cells during sexual reproduction
what is the difference between asexual reproduction and sex without reproduction? reproduction is just duplication and replication of chromosomes through a sexual reproduction. sex without reproduction is the transfer of genes without increasing the population by the use of sex pilli.
what is diploidy? this is the duplication of the genome. this increases genetic diversity by creating 4 different types of gametes from 4 different chromosome combinations.
where did eukaryotic sex come from? how did it evolve? we don't know how it happened accept it happened very early
what are the pros and cons to sexual reproduction? it increases genetic variability instead of just with mutationand only the best parents reproduce as they survive so those successful traits are passed onto children nad the bad traits eventually die out. but, the individual has to live long enough to reproduce as it takes longer
whats the difference btween sex and reproduction in Eukaryotes and prokaryotes? in Eukaryotes sex and reproduction are the same thing, while in prokaryotes they are two separate functions
what is syngamy? the fusion of haploid cells
what is isogamy? the fusion of two structuarally similar, or morphological, cells such as that between algae and plants to make a fungi
what are mating types? the term used when talking about the two male and female parts of a species when you can't tell the difference between the two
what is the anisogamy? the fusion of two different looking cells, also called oogamy. this is usually between a small easily and quickly made cell with a larger slower made cell. this process is usually seen in higher mammals and plants
what is plasmogamy? this is the union of the cytoplasm of two cells. this happens when the fusion of two cells happens in two stages. This process is not very likely
what is Karyogamy? the fusion of two nuclei of two cells, the second part of a two part fusion
describe the diplontic life cycle. this process happenes in animals where to haploid cells join to from a diploid cell. this diploid cell then grows into a multicellular diploid organism. when its fully grown in makes a gametewhich fertilizes or is fertilized by another gamete to make a 2n diploid cell and the process starts again
describe the alternation of generation life cycle. to haploid cells come together to make a diploid cell. this haploid cell undergoes mitosis to become a multicellular organism or a sporophyte. this sporophyte undergoes meiosis to make spores which then grow into a haploid organism. this organism then makes gametes which can be fertilized and the process begins again
describe the haploid life cycle haploid organisms make gametes which join to make a diploid zygote. the zygote undergoes meiosis to make haploid spores. then undergoes mitosis to make a haploid organism. the zygote is the only diploid phase. this usually happens in fungi
what is the sporangium? where spores are made
what is the gametangium? where gametes are made
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