Biology 108 - Kingdom Plantae: Non-Vascular Plants

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Chemistry 101 Biology 108 Flashcards on Biology 108 - Kingdom Plantae: Non-Vascular Plants, created by jennabarnes12387 on 03/26/2014.

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Question Answer
where did plants evolve from? What are they most closely related to? they share a common ancestry with the algae group chlorophyta and their closest relative is the charophyceae
what do these tow groups have in common? (4 traits) oth have a rosette shaped cellulose making complex that mkaes the microfibrils for the cell walls. they both have peroxisome enzymes that detoxify and break down toxins. both have phragoplats which is the central region of the mitosis spindle during telophase. their sperm have a similar strucutre with flagella *bonus* similar nuclear and chloroplast DNA
Where are most peroxisome enzymes found in the body? what happens when the liver is overworked? found mostly in liver cells. When the liver fails, the cells produce a lot of the peroxisome enzyme and then stop making it completely, poisoning the body
list some important features plants needed to develop to become terrestrial. (5) they needed apical meristem which are regions of cell division just at the tips of roots and steps to get the plant to grow taller. they shoots had to grow against gravity and gather light and oxygen while the roots grow with gravity to collect water and minerals. needed walled spores that wouldn't dry out. needed multicellular gametes and zygotes that had to grow inside the female so they don't dry out. the use of the alternation of generation life cycle
name the 4 different groups of plants and what they mean. bryophytes have no vascular tissue such as mosses. pterophytes have vascular tissue but don't make seeds such as ferns. gymnosperms make sees but no flowers such as conifers. angiosperms make flowers such as all flowering plants
what do we call a taxon that is represented by only one species? a monotypic taxon. if you loose this species you loose their special genes that cannot be found anywhere else.
what is a spore mother cell? the diploid sporangium cell that goes thought meiosis to create a spores. also called a sporocyte in flowing plants
what are the advantages of delayed meiosis? maximizes the reproduction of spores and genetic diversity
what are the 4 ways that plants are classified? wether gametophyte or sporophyte phase is dominant, hetero vs. homosporus, are their gametophytes bisexual or do they have seperate male anf female gametophytes, and do they make one type of spore or mega and micro spores
what are the pros and cons of a plant living in an aquatic environment? there is more support so less supportive tissue is needed.water is always available, but oxygen, carbon dioxide and and light are harder to get
What are the main Characteristics of non-vascular plants? they lack complicated transportation vascular tissue also called xylem and phloem tissue. this means they are usually close to the ground as without this tissue they cannot circulate water and food against gravity well so they cannot be tall.
describe the alternation of generation life-cycle that is common in plants. starts with the gametophyte stage, the stage less prominent in advanced plants, where the gametangium inside the gametophyte which will eb fertilized and grow into a zygote inside the female gametangium. the zygote will be released and grow into a multicelluar sporophyte. The sporophyte will undergo mieosis to turn its diploid cell, the spore mother cell, into two diploid cells which will each divide to get 4 haploid cells in all. these cells will develop into spores and then be released and grow into gametophytes.
why did plants develop a cuticle? Why does the cuticle have stomata? the cuticle is water proof meaning water cannot get in or out. This keeps the plant from loosing to much water in a terrestrial environment where water can be limited. The cuticle is also resistance to CO2 which the plant needs to survive. In response the plant developed controlled openings, with guard cells to control when they open, that allowed oxygen and excess water out and let CO2 in.
how are lignin, Collenchyma, and sclerenchyma related in their function? What do they do? all of them are substances or cells that give the plant mechanical strength and support against gravity. Lignin is a complex organic substance that gives the plant mechanical support and collenchyma are young cells that will develop into sclerenchyma to act as support as well.
what are xylem and phloem cells for? how are Tracheids related xylem cells are responsible for transporting water from the roots to other parts of the plant while phloem tubes circulating food produced in the leaves all around the plant. Tracheids are a more primitve form of xylem cells. they have long tapered ends that are attached side by side becuase of these ends. they are hardened with lignin for support and water moves from cell to cell using pits in there walls.
where are trachieds found? in gymnosperms, some angiosperms and some ferns
In stead of Tracheids, describe the vessel structure in advanced angiosperms. the vessels don't have tapered ends like the trachieds and they have shorter and thinner walls. the walls are thinner so water can pass through wall perforations at the end of the cells, holes through the primary and secondary wall.
describe advanced phloem tubes in detail. also called sieve tube members, fluid passes from cell to cell via pores in the walls of end cells.they developed companion cells for each sieve tube member, stuck there with plasmodermasta. The companion cells contain all the organelles needed for metabolism that the sieve tube members lack.
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