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Cells

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Year 10 Biology Flashcards on Cells, created by Hannah McDonald on 10/30/2016.
Hannah McDonald
Flashcards by Hannah McDonald, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah McDonald
Created by Hannah McDonald almost 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organisation in living organisms 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
Prokaryote A simple cell with features including no nucleus, no membrane organelle and 70s ribosomes e.g. bacterial cells. Size 0.5-1 microns. 1 micron = 1000 microns
Eukaryote A more complex cell including features such as a nucleus, membrane bound organelles and 80s ribosomes e.g. animal, plant, fungi cells size 10-100 microns
Organelle Sub-cellular structure
Cytosol Fluid part of the cell where some chemical reasons occur
Plasma cell membrane It regulates the inputs and outputs of the cell
Nucleus Contains DNA as linear chromosomes and controls the cells activities by coding proteins
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Synthesis and transport of lipids and carbohydrates around the cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Folds and transports proteins to the golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus/body Final modification and packaging of proteins into secretory vesicle
Secretory Vesicle Transport and packaging of protein for secretion by exocytosis
Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes for the destruction of unwanted cellular material
Mitochondria Site of aerobic cellular respiration Synthesis ATP
Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis
Permanent Vacuole Storage of cell sap- water containing dissolved sugars and salts Provides support to maintain turgidity of the cell
Cell Wall The cell wall provides support to the cell Made from cellulose implants. It is fully permeable
Mitosis The process by which a somatic cell divides producing two daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell
Cytokinesis At the end of mitosis, when two new nuclei have formed. this is when the parent cell divides into two daughter cells Division of cytoplasm
Interphase Main part of the cell cycle made up of G1,S and G2 phases
G1 Phase Growth phase of a normal functioning cell (Gap 1)
S Phase DNA is replicated in the cell (synthesis)
G2 Phase Cell prepares for mitosis (Gap 2)
Prophase -The chromosomes condense -The centrosome start moving towards the poles of the cell releasing spindle fibres - The nuclear envelope begins to break down
Metaphase -The chromosomes line up across cells equator -Spindle fibres from the centrosomes join t the centromere
Anaphase -The sister chromatids are pullers apart towards opposite poles of the cell
Telophase -The two sets of chromosomes at each end of the cells are then enclosed in a new nuclear envelope -The cell membrane begins to pinch in two (animals) or a cell plate forms in plants
Chromosome A thread like structure consisting of DNA and protein which is visible in cells during mitosis
DNA Deoxyribose nucleic acid - chemical chromosomes are made from
Gene A section of a chromosome that codes for a protein
Chromatid When a chromosome doubles it has two strands held together by a centromere. Each of the strands is called a chromatid (together sister chromatids)
Centromere The part of the chromosome that links sister chromatids (remember 'm' -middle of chromosome)
Centrosome Forms spindle fibres for nuclear division (remember 's' - spindle)
Centriole Tubular structure used to make centrosomes Centrosomes have 2 centrioles at right angles. made of microtubules Animal cells only
Meiosis Create 4 daughter cells containing half the genetic information i.e. gametes
Gametes Sex cells - e.g. in humans > spermatozoa and ova in plants > pollen and ova
Parent cells The cell at the beginning of mitosis and meiosis
Daughter cell Formed from the parent cell- 2 are formed in mitosis and 4 in meiosis
Haploid Contains one set of chromosomes. Represented as n
Diploid Contains pairs of chromosomes. Represented as 2n
Eukaryote vs Prokaryote Eukaryotes have a nucleus whereas the prokaryote does not. Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles where prokaryotes do not Eukaryotes have 80 ribosomes and prokaryotes have 70s ribosomes Eukaryotes are linear DNA Prokaryotes have have singular circular DNA
Plant Cells vs Animal Cells Animal cells: small temporary vacuoles or none, no chloroplast, no cell wall Plant cells: large permanent vacuole, rigid cell wall, chloroplast
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