AS Biology-Animal Cell Structure

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Biology Flashcards on AS Biology-Animal Cell Structure, created by jessicaalicexo on 03/31/2014.
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Plasma Membrane Found on the surface of animal cells and inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotic cells. Mainly made of lipids and protein. Regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Receptor molecules on it, allowing it to respond to chemicals like hormones
Nucleus Surrounded by nuclear envelope, which contains many pored. Contains chromatin and often nucleolus. Chromatin is made from proteins and DNA. Pores allow substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm. Nucleoulus makes ribosomes.
Lysosome Round organelle surrounded by a membrane, no clear internal structure. Contains digestive enzymes. Kept separate from cytoplasm by surrounding membrane, used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell.
Ribosome Small organelle that floats free in cytoplasm or is attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The site where proteins are made.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Two types:Smooth ER-System of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. Reticulum synthesises and processes lipids Rough ER-Similar, covered in ribosomes. Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes.
Golgi Apparatus Group of fluid-filled flattened sacs. Processes and packages new lipids and proteins. Makes new lysosomes.
Microvilli Folds in the plasma membrane. Found on cells involved in processes like absorption, such as epithelial cells in small intestine. Increase surface area of plasma membrane.
Mitochondrion Oval-shaped. Double membrane-inner one is folded to form cristae. Inside is the matrix, which contains enzymes involved in respiration. Site of aerobic respiration. Found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require a lot of energy.
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