Organelles and their functions

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Question Answer
Plasma (cell surface) membrane Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones
cel wall supports plant cells
nucleus The nucleus contains chromatin which is made from proteins and DNA. The nuclear pores allow substances e.g. RNA to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
lysosome contains digestive enzymes. these are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrouding membrane, and can be used to digest invading cells or to break down warn out components of the cell.
Ribosome the site where proteins are made
rough endoplasmic reticulum folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosmes
smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesises and processes lipids
vesicle transports substances in and out of the cell (via the cell surface membrane) and between organelles. some are formed by the golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum, while others are formed at the cell surface
golgi apparatus it processes and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysosomes
mitochondrion The site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced. They're found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require a lot of energy
chloroplast the site where photosynthesis takes place some parts of photosynthesis happen in the grana, and other parts happen in the stroma
centriole involved with the separation of chomosomes during cell division
cilia the microtubules allow the cilia to move. This movement is used by the cell to move substances along the cell surface.
flagellum the microtubules contract to make the flagellum move. flagella are used like outboard motors to propel cells forward