Biology 108 lab 9 and 10

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Chemistry 101 Biology 108 lab Flashcards on Biology 108 lab 9 and 10, created by jennabarnes12387 on 04/02/2014.

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Question Answer
Phylum Nematoda include what organisms? roundworms
describe the characteristics of phylum Nematoda. can be both free living and parasitic forms. they have a complex digestive tract with a mouth and and anus but unlike phylum annelida, they only have longitudial muscles, not circular muscles. they have a body cavity between the gut and outer body wall called a pseudocelom, or a fluid filled space. this space came from embryonic blastocoe lying between the endodermal and mesodermal tissue during early development
this is a cross section of a ascaris or round worm. Just inside the outer body wall are the longitudinal muscles. the straight flat tube running the length of the body is the intestine. in the center is the short muscular pharynx. pseudocoelom that was mentioned before acts as a hydrostatic skeleton. the thin coiled strucutre is the female reproductive system, which is y shaped when uncoiled. one vagina can be found extending from the gential pour, a third of the way down the body from the anterior end. the vagina branches into to uteri and they into a thinner oviduct each, and then each oviduct into an ovary.
describe the ascaris male reproductive system. the male reproductive is also long and coiled but it doesn't branch off, staying single. it starts at the testes with thicken into the vas deferens, then the seminal vesicle, then the ejaculatory duct with empties into the anus. the anus is used for reproduction as well as waste disposal.
what are the circular and oval structures in both the female and male roundworms? these are the reproductive systems. in females the ovaries the smallest in diameter and look like wagon wheels. the oviducts are larger and have a central cavity or a lumen. Uteri as the largest and are filled with eggs. for males the smallest are the testes, the medium are the vas deferens, and the largest the seminal vesicles. there seems to be a lot a these structures but they are coiled so when cut they look like separate pieces instead of one structure
Where do female round worms they their eggs? Where to the eggs develop? the mother expells the eggs with her feces which will then be consumed by other organisms when they eat vegetation that they eggs have landed on. they eggs with hatch in the organisms intestine and the larvae will stay there until they mature. then they will get out of the intestine and into the liver. they then move to the lungs and then out he mouth cavity
What other specimen is an example of phylum Nematoda? turbatrix aceti or vinegar eels
How is the movemnet of roundworms different then that of segmented and flat worms? why is that? segmented and flat worms have both longitudinal muscles and circular muscles. together they allow the worm to more more smoothly through there environments. round worms only have longitudinal muscles so they thrash around their aquatic environments
describe the characteristics of phylum Arthropoda. both aquatic and terrestrial and include flying insects, the only invertebrates that can fly. they have segmented bodies. there coelom, or main body cavity, is reduced during development and is replaced with the hemocoel, which contains circularity fluids. they all have chitinous exoskeletons, paired and jointed appendages, and a high degree of cephalization, meaning nervous tissue is concentrated on one end of the organism, all organs forming a pattern
give and example of phylum Anthropoda. Romalea or grasshopper
this is a Romalea or grasshopper it has three tagmata or body regions, the head, thorax, and abdomen. each body segment is covered by plates called sclerities. The abdomen has ten sections with soft rings of cuticle in the underside of the abdomen, or the pleura. These are called spiracles, the opening of the tracheal system, which allows is responsible for gas exchange. The tergum and sternum are hardened while the lateral pleura is soft so allow for movement. they have large compound eyes consisting of hexagon facets. they also have three ocellis or simple eyes, one on the front, and one each near each compound eye. they have antennae that use for touch and smell as well as three pairs of mouth parts. they have three pairs of walking legs on the thorax that are uniramous or unbranched. the tips have fleshy pads for gripping surfaces. they adaption of these walking legs for many different uses is part of the great success of this phylum. they have two pairs of wings attached to the thorax, fore wings backwards over and abdomen, and hind wings underneath them, the hind wings being used the most in flying.
this is a dissected grasshopper. they stringy almost translucent organ attached to the spiracles is the tracheae. they are responsible for oxygenating the organs. if you have a female the ovaries will appear as a cluster of oblong structures that fill the abdominal cavity. If its male the testes will be clustered at the anterior end of the abdomen, taking up less room then the ovaries. insects also have a haemoceol under the exoskeleton and surrounds the organs.
describe the characteristics of phylum Echinodermata. they are spiny-skinned marine animals including sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. even though the adults usually have pentamerous or five part radial symmetry, they are considered bilateral, because the larvae are bilaterally symmetrical. they are similar in evolution to phylum Cordata, which includes humans, because both are deuterostomes, meaning during development the first opening that develops becomes the anus.
this is a sea star. underthe fleshy outer coating, they have an endoskeleton made of plates called ossicles from the embryonic mesoderm. spines extend from the endoskeleton into the soft cover. they have numerous dermal papulae, or skin gills on their surface that look like tiny finger-liker projections. also on the body surface are jaw-like pedicellariae. the main body is made up of the central disc and five arms, the mouth found on the underside called the oral surface. the upper side is called the aboral surface where the anus is located. just off center of the aboral surface is a button structure called the madreporite. this is a filter that leads to the water vascular system. the groovesi nthe underside of the arms are the ambulacral grooves, filled with tube feet. the tube feet are responsible for movement, respiration, and feeding.
describe the inner portions of the sea star. inside the central disc is the stomach which has two regions, the cardiac region and the upper pyloric region near the mouth, can be entered directly from the mouth. a pair of pyloric caeca or digestive glands extend from the pyloric region of the stomach out to the arms. they digest food and absorb nutrients. there is a short intestine that goes from the top of the stomach to the anus. under the pyloric caeca i each arm is a pair of gonads, their size depending on the stage of reproduction. Sea stars are dioecious, meaning the male and females of the species are different, but you can only tell the sex using a microscope. from the internal surface of the madreporite there is a small tube called the stone canal which leads to the ring canal, one in each arm. the ring canal is enclosed in a tubular ring that surrounds the mouth region. the radial canal can also be found here with the tube feet attached to it via lateral canals. the bulbous point of the the tube foot is called the ampulla
describe the characteristics of phylum Chordata. includes invertebrates, those without backbones ,as well as vertebrates, those with backbones. vertebrates have backbones madeo f metameric vertebrar and all organisms have a wide variation of feeding habits. includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. they all have notochord, a semi ridged endoskeleton for strength and longitudinal support. found on the back so allow for bending without shortening. they have a dorsal hollow nerve cord that is a single strand of tissue from dorsal to notochord. they have pharynegal slits or clefts in the walls of the pharynx for filter feeding i early chordates, and are now for respiration, they are only found on terrestrial species pharynx during embryonic development. they are coelomates, meaning they have complex closed circulatory system with bilateral symmetry. they have a tail bone, a muscular post anal tail that originally served as a locomotion structure
this is a perca or a perch from the phylum Chordata. the body consists of the head, trunk, and tail, the head extending from snout to operculum, the hard bony plat covering the gills. the trunk is from head to anus and the tail is the rest called the caudal fin. the upper and lower jaws of the head enclose a large mouth which has small openings above it in the snout called nares, openings to the olfactory bulbs. the gills consists of gill filaments that are attached to a gill arch, the space between gill arches are called gill slits. the lateral line of pores that etend the length of the body contain sensory reseptors that allow the fish to sense movement from changes in water currents. the trunck and tail are covered in scales which increase in size as the fish grows but not in number. the epidermis and tehn a layer of mucus cover the body. they have two dorsal fins on top of the body, an anal fin underneath, a caudal fin at the end of the tail, two pectoral fins underneath near the head, a pair of pelvic fins just behind the pectoral fins.
describe the muscle structure of the perch the muscles are arranged in v shaped segments called myomeres, that demonstrates the fish's metamorphism, segments that are very similar, which chordates all have.
describe the heart of the perch it is found just after the head, behind the gills. it has two chambers and has a thin walled atrium and a muscular ventricle.
describe the urinary tract of the perch near the reproductive organs is a small sac-like urinary bladder. under this are two narrow strands of brownish material, the kidneys. urinary ducts run from the kidneys to the urinary bladder, which lies near the anus. males have two separate openings while females only have one.
Where is the swimmers bladder. What does it do? underneath the digestive tract is the swim or air bladder. it is filled with oxygen, CO2, and nitrogen, the levels of which can be changed by adding then to the bladder from the bloodstream, regulating the buoyancy of the fish.
describe the digestive system of the perch a large lobed liver can be found at the front of the body cavity and underneath is the esophagus that leads to the stomach. the left or pyloric end of the stomach is attached to the intestine which loops back and forth until it reaches the anus. where the stomach and intestine join there are three sacs called pyloric caeca which help with digestion and absorption.
describe the reproductive systems of the perch the biggest organ is usually the gonads. in females there is one large ovary in the back of the body cavity. oviduct lead from the ovary, the former where the eggs are released from a hole just behind the anus. males have a pair of testes in the same place as the ovary would be. vas deferens run from each of the testes then join just before reaching the genital pore just below the anus.
how are the hearts of rats, frogs, a the perch different? perch have a two chambered heart, frogs have 3, and rats have 4. 2 atria and one ventricle for the frog means the blood can be oxygenated in two different ways. if they are out of water, air comes from the lungs, if out of water the air comes from the skin. rats have 4 as they only use their lungs and they have double circulation with blood, keeping oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate
what is systematics? a type of biology that tries to classify organisms and put them in groups based on their characteristics.
what is phylogenetic? an approach to classification that looks at when species exasperated from ancestors and other organisms and the evolution of a species
what is taxonomy? where organisms are named and grouped based on their characteristics
what are monophyletic clades? a clade that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendents
what is cladisitcs? of from of phylogenetic that tries to demonstrate evolutionary relationships based on common descendence.
what are homologous characteristics? common traits that come from the same line of descent so the organisms have a common origin.
what are analogous traits? traits that are a result of convergent evolution, meaning they species didn't come from the same ancestor but live in habitats where these similar traits are beneficial
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