Personality Psychology Chapter 11

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Macewan University Psychology 233 Personality Psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature 5th edition R.J. Larsen, D.M Buss
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Motives internal states that arouse and direct Bhav toward specific objects or goals, caused by deficit, or lack of something
needs based on motives, states tension within a person, as it is satisfied the tension is reduced
Motives produce two main ideas 1. Thoughts and fantasies 2. Bhavs to satisfied needs
motive psychological stress 1. ppl differ in types& strength of motives 2. diff. are measurable 3. diff. cause life outcomes 4. diff can be stable over time 5. motives provide answers
Murray the need potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances, certain trend is apt recur
Need: 1. organize action 2. fulfills self 3. process of reducing tension
Murrays Fundamental list of needs 1. specific desire or intention 2. set of emotions 3. specific action, trait names
hierarchy of needs each persons is unique, various needs have different levels of strength
dynamic interaction between different needs/motives within a person, mutual influence of forces within a person
Murray press refer to need-relevant aspects of environment ex. need for affiliations reflected by how many opportunities are seized
alpha press real environment/ objective reality
beta press perceived environment
Apperception Murray act of interpreting environment and perceiving meaning of what is going in a situation
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Murray & Morgan making a story from black and white images that are ambiguous, story needs a beginning, middle, end.
State levels refer to persons momentary amount of specific need, w/h can fluctuate w/ specific circumstances
trait levels needs refer to measuring a person's average tendency, or their set point, or specific trait
Multi-Motive Grid combines features of TAT w/ features of self-report questionnaires, 14 pictures are selected to arouse one of big 3 motives- achievement, power, intimacy
Problems w/ TAT when administered improperly 1. poor re-test reliability 2. responses b/w pictures dont match 3. poor prediction validity
implicit motivation based on needs: achievement, power, intimacy based in fantasy based measures, not explicitly telling psychologists about self, implied meanings; unconscious desire, aspirations, unspoken needs, motivations
self-attributed motivation reflects persons self-awareness of his/ her own conscious motives or normative beliefs about goals, modes of conduct, conscious awareness
implicit and explicit motives are good basis on achievement motivation prediction
need for achievement McClelland desire to do better, to be successful, competent, usually gaining satisfaction from task completion, prefer moderate levels of challenge, want person responsibility, want feedback
need for achievement = nAch women 1. high nAch in family & career = family, college 2. high nAch in family= high focus on mate selection 3. high nAch causes competition b/w mother and daughter 4. expression of achievement in different environments
independence training parents bhav in ways that promote autonomy and independence in their children
challenging standards parents need to let children know what is excepted of them that does not surpass acquired skills, developing nAch
secure attachment style develop higher nAch, than avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles
Carol Dweck developmental theory of nAch emphasizes beliefs ppl develop about their abilities & competencies: abilities are not fixed, malleable and can develop versus people who believe that abilities are fixed lower nAch
need for Power McClelland & Winter readiness or preference for having a impact on other ppl, energize and direct Bhav
nPow= high need for power correlates to higher amounts of arguments, student in office, gambling risks, assertive Bhav in sm. groups, acquiring prestige possessions
nPow, men in form of social power, career power, prestige possessions, higher aggression, sexual exploitation of women, more sex partners, abuse alcohol
responsibility training curbs profligate impulses (drinking, aggression, sexual exploitation)
power stress people w/ high nPow were vulnerable to various ailments and disease b/c stress associated w/ inhibited power. lowers antibodies, immune, higher blood pressure, hypertension
Winter high nPow predicts wars; key is to balance between motives, w/ power by affiliation, achievement balanced by power concerns
conflict increases when high power imagery is used in conversation, desire to have an impact, reputation
need for intimacy nInt, McAdams preference or readiness for warm, close, communicative interaction w/ others. more meaningful human contact
high nInt 1. spend more time thinking about rela. 2. more pleasant emotions round others 3. smile, laugh, make more eye contact 4. start up convs more frequently 5. no sex differences 6. low extroversion 7. few close friends
humanistic tradition emphasize role of choice, influence of responsibility in creating meaning lifestyle, also need for growth & one's full potential
Freud, murray, McClelland believe motivation comes from a deficit or lack (nAch, nPow, nInt) NOT a need to grow & develop
Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs hierarchically organizes needs: 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Belongingness 4. Esteem 5. Self- Actualization
Physiological Needs needs for survival, basic needs: oxygen, water, food, sleep
safety needs shelter, and security, away from threat of danger
Rules of Hierarchy of Needs 1. lower needs are more powerful than higher needs 2. must satisfy lower needs first
Belongingness Needs ppl possess strong needs to belong to groups, being accepted, evolutionary need
esteem needs esteem from others: seen as strong, competent, able to achieve, respect; self-esteem: self-respect worth, value, competence, achieving recognition
self-actualization need need to develop one's potential, to become the person you were meant to be, few doubts about directions take in life.
Problem of Hierarchy of needs 1. not based on empirical findings 2. more contentedness from thinking about goals than attainment 3. self-actualization does not predict happiness
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow subjective state that ppl report when they are competely involved in something to point of forgetting time, fatigue, everything else but the activity itself, functioning at fullest capacity, finding balance between skill and challenge
Abraham Maslow believed humans are naturally good, benevolent, positive, movement towards self-actualization can be stalle, person-centered therapy
fully functioning person person who is on her/ his way toward self-actualization, may not be self-actualized yet and unblocked towards becoming actualized, live in present, trust themselves, their feelings, own judgement, no regret
positive regard all children are born wanting to be loved and accepted by their parents & others
conditions of worth requirements set forth by parents or significant others for earning their position regard, preoccupation for conditions of worth instead of what makes them happy
conditional positive regard only getting positive regard under conditions
unconditional positive regard positive regard w/ no strings attached, freely without conditions/ contingencies, accepting child fully, unconditional acceptance
positive self-regard person that accepts themselves without changing themselves, even weaknesses and shortcomings, trust themselves & self-acceptance.
anxiety people who are not moving towards self-actualization, experiences that do not fit self-conception
distortion functional response of anxiety to alter an experience trough modifying their experience rather than self-image to reduce threat.
emotional intelligence 1. ability to know one's emotions 2. ability to regulate those emotions 3. ability to motivate oneself 4. ability to know how others feel 5. ability to influence how others feel
client-centered therapy getting person back onto a path toward self-actualization, client is never given interpretation of his/her problem, never giving course of action/ direction, tries to create right conditions for client to change self.
3 core conditions 1. geniuene acceptance 2. unconditional positive regard 3. empathic understanding-understanding/ trust
empathy understanding other person from his/ her point of view, restating and content / feeling for client, being the mirror
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