Experiment Type

Hazel Meades
Flashcards by Hazel Meades, updated more than 1 year ago
Hazel Meades
Created by Hazel Meades about 7 years ago


This concerns lab, natural and field experiments as well as other types of investigation.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is a laboratory experiment? Give an example. An experiment in a controlled, artificial setting. E.g: Milgram
What are the strengths of a laboratory experiment? IV and EVs are well-controlled, accurate measurements are possible, it's easy to replicate.
What are the weaknesses of a laboratory experiment? It's not very ecologically valid, could have demand characteristics and it isn't possible to generalise results.
What is a field experiment? Give an example. An experiment in a natural setting but the IV is still manipulated. E.g: Loftus (weapon-focus effect experiment).
What are the strengths of a field experiment? It's more ecologically valid.
What are the weaknesses of a field experiment? There is less control of EVs, it's difficult to replicate and there can be ethical issues.
What is a natural experiment? Give an example. The experiment is in natural settings in which the IV occurs naturally. The IV varies so the effect on the DV is measured. E.g: Hodges and Tizard
What are the strengths of a natural experiment? It's very ecologically valid and the researcher doesn't generate an unethical IV.
What are the weaknesses of a natural experiment? There are more external factors, it's more expensive and time-consuming, very difficult to replicate and no control of EVs.
What is a case study? A research method that involves a detailed study of a single individual, institution or event.
What are the strengths of a case study? They provide a rich record of human experience with in-depth data, can investigate psychological issues that are unethical to generate, interaction of factors can be observed and there's higher ecological validity.
What are the weaknesses of case studies? Hard to generalise from, participant variables, can't do before and after, researchers may lack objectivity as they get to know the case or due to theoretical bias, confidentiality issues (unique symptoms could be recognised) and it's unreliable.
What is a cross-sectional study? One group of participants of a young age are compared with an older group, with a view to find age influence on the questioned behaviour.
What are the weaknesses of a cross-sectional study? Cohort effects - this means that one group is assumed to be comparable to the other when they may not be due to different experiences.
What is a longitudinal study? Observation of the same items over a long period of time. Such studies usually aim to compare the same individuals at different ages or might observe an institution.
What are the weaknesses of a longitudinal study? Attrition, cohort effects.
What is a roleplay? A controlled observation in which participants are asked to imagine how they'd behave in certain situations and act out the part.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of a roleplay? Strengths: allows research to study unethical issues. E.g: Zimbardo. Weaknesses: People aren't acting correctly as they would in real life.
What is a multi-method? A combination of techniques and methods used to investigate behaviour.
What are the weaknesses and strengths of a multi-method? Strengths: more valid as you can cross-check findings. Weaknesses: takes time, difficult to code info together.
What is an investigation? A study that doesn't fit into other categories. It has no IV or DV e.g: questionnaires.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of an investigation? Strengths: flexible Weaknesses: innacurate
What is a cross-cultural study? A natural experiment in which the IV is different cultural practises and the DV is behaviour.
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