Research Methods

Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

A level Psychology (Research Methods) Flashcards on Research Methods, created by rebeccamay97 on 04/08/2014.

Created by rebeccamay97 over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the Independent Variable? The variable that is being manipulated or changed by the experimenter
What is the Dependent Variable? The variable that is being measured by the experimenter.
List four extraneous variables. Situational, Participant, Investigator and Demand Characteristics
What are Situational Variables? Variables associated with the research eg. environment, temperature
What are Participant Effects? These are the variables associated with the participants eg. intelligence, gender
What are Investigator Effects? When the researcher's behaviour influence the research. Eg. leading instructions, body language
What are Demand Characteristics? When participants become aware of what is expected of them in research and act accordingly
Define Operationalisation Ensuring that variables are in a form that can be tested and allows the research to be replicated
What are aims? General statements to help explain the reason why a study is being carried out
What is a directional hypothesis? It predicts the expected direction of the results.
What is a non-directional hypothesis? It simply predicts that there will be a difference between results
What are the strengths of a lab experiment? Less extraneous variables, Easy replication, high internal validity
What are the weaknesses of a lab experiment? Lack ecological validity, demand characteristics
What is a lab experiment? Artificial environment, IV is manipulated by researcher
What is a field experiment? Natural environment, IV manipulated by researcher
What are the strengths of a field experiment? Less demand characteristics, high ecological validity
What are the weaknesses of field experiments? more extraneous variables, ethical issues: deception, lower internal validity
What is a natural experiment? Natural environment, IV occurs naturally
What are strengths of a natural experiment? Behaviour is genuine, high external validity, allows study of otherwise unethical variables
What are weaknesses of natural experiments? Lots of extraneous variables, assignment of participants is not random - hard to interpret results
What is Repeated Measures? The same participant used in both conditions.
What are strengths of Repeated Measures? Participant differences eliminated, uses fewer participants
What are the weaknesses of Repeated Measures? Higher order effects, higher demand characteristics
How can you control Repeated Measures? Order effects controlled through counterbalancing - each condition tested first and second equally
What is Independent Groups? Each participant tests one condition, Allocated randomly
What are the strengths of Independent Groups? No order effects, less demand characteristics
What are weaknesses of Independent Groups? Participant differences, need more participants
How can you control Independent Groups? Randomly allocate participants
What is Matched Pairs? Participants matched closely with another participant
What are the strengths of Matched Pairs? No order effects, less participant differences
What are the weaknesses of Matched Pairs? Difficult to match participants, more participants required
How can Matched Pairs be controlled? Using identical twins minimises participant differences
What is random sampling? Everyone in target population has an equal chance of being selected
Strengths of Random sampling Representative and has high population validity
Weaknesses of Random sampling It may not be truly representative of whole population. Practical limitations
What is Opportunity sampling? Using people who are readily available
What are the strengths of opportunity sampling? Convenient method
What are the weaknesses of opportunity sampling? More likely to be biased, low population validity
What is volunteer sampling? Where participants self-select themselves and volunteer to take part.
What are the weaknesses of volunteer sampling? A particular type of person is likely to volunteer, higher bias.
What is a pilot study? Small scale trial of a research run before the real thing. Tests if there are errors
What is a strength of pilot studies? It can save time and money in the long run
What is reliability? Whether it can be replicated or not
What is internal validity? What is going on inside a study so whether or not the IV produced a change in the DV
What is external validity? Whether the study can be generalised or not eg, ecological, population, historical
Name three measures of central tendency Mean, median and mode.
Name two measures of dispersion Range and Standard Deviation
What is a correlation? An association or relationship between two variables
What is a strength of correlational research? Allows the study of variables that would otherwise be unethical
What is a weakness of correlational research? It is only a link. There is no cause and effect so there may be other variables that are involved
Describe Informed Consent Participants must be told the true aims of the study and must give their full consent to take part
Describe Deception Participants should not be deceived unless necessary. If it is required, great care must be given to project
Describe Debriefing After the research is complete, participants must be debriefed and informed of true motivations
Describe Right to Withdraw Participants must be free to leave the experiment and take data at any time
Describe Confidentiality Any information and data must be kept private and no identifiable data can be published
Describe Protection from Harm The participant should leave study in the same state they entered, psychologically and physically
What are the advantages of a naturalistic observation? Natural behaviour is observed, high in ecological validity
What are the disadvantages of a naturalistic observation? There is little control over extraneous variables
What is the advantage of a controlled observation? Control over extraneous variables
What is the disadvantage of controlled observations? Behaviour may not be natural or normal
What are the advantages of a participant observation? Easier to understand participant's behaviour, high in ecological validity
What are the disadvantages of participant observations? Hard to record observations, Observers can become involved with participants, making data subjective
What are the advantages of non-participant observations? Lack of contact means the observer can remain objective
What is the disadvantage of a non-participant observation? Behaviour may be recorded but the meaning behind it may not be known
What are the strengths of interviews? rich, detailed info; participants struggle to lie; misunderstandings can be clarified
What are the weaknesses of interviews? time consuming, expensive, investigator effects, social desirability bias
What is the advantage of open questions? Rich, detailed data
What is the advantages of closed questions? Produces quantitative data, easier to fill in
Strengths of questionnaires lots of data collected quickly, investigator effects reduced, ethical way to collect data
Weaknesses of questionnaires leading qus, social desirability bias, certain people fill questionnaires (bias), ambiguous qus
Strengths of case studies Produces rich data, high ecological validity
Weaknesses of case studies One off - difficult to replicate/generalise
Advantages of quantative data Easy to analyse, statistics
Disadvantage of quantitative data Oversimplifies reality
Advantages of qualitative data Represents complexity of human behaviour, rich in detail
Disadvantages of qualitative data more difficult to analyse, investigator bias